My article “India’s Money” in the *Cayman Financial Review*, July 2012

India’s money

India was recognised and received the comity of nations when it signed the Treaty of Versailles as a victor, later becoming a Dominion and successor-state of British India in 1947, and a sovereign republic in 1950. Pakistan emerged as a new state created out of British India in 1947, remaining a Dominion until 1956 when it became an Islamic republic.

India was an original member of the League of Nations, a signatory to the UN’s San Francisco Declaration, a participant at Bretton Woods, and an original member of the IMF.

Yet some 65 years later, sovereign India has failed to develop a currency universally acceptable as a freely convertible world money. Nor do trade, monetary, fiscal or political conditions appear such that the rupee can become a hard currency of the world economy easily or very soon.

JM Keynes in his first book, a century ago, gave a masterly survey of the immediate monetary history. The rupee had been on a silver standard until 1893 when an attempt at bimetallism failed; instead India stumbled into the 20th century on a modified gold standard that chanced to fulfil desiderata known since Ricardo, namely “the currency media used in the internal circulation are confined to notes and cheap token coins, which are made to act precisely as if they were bits of gold by being made convertible into gold for foreign payment purposes”.

Ie, the rupee was legal tender at home and convertible into sterling for international payments in London, the price being set at 1s 4d. Gold at £3.17s.10½d until August 1914 meant a rupee price of Rs 31 per troy oz.- long-forgotten now when gold retails at Rs 90,000 per troy oz, measuring an average annual rate of inflation in the gold price of about 8.5 per cent for the century.

Until 1947 the rupee remained subservient to British policy. Sterling payments included paying for merchandise imports, dividends and repayments on British business, as well as iniquitous “home charges” imposed by Britain to rule India as an unfree imperial dependency. Britain “returned to gold” in 1925, and did so notoriously at the same price as before though the rupee was revalued to 1s 6d.; Indian businessmen complained to no avail that this hurt exports and worsened the large deflation caused by the Depression. The same continued after sterling became a paper money again in September 1931, backed only by London’s position as a financial capital.

India remained a major trading nation during 1870-1914 with a share of world manufactured exports as high as 4 per cent. Keynes found Britain (the world’s largest exporter), exporting most to India; while Germany (the world’s fastest growing economy) received 5 per cent of its imports from India and sent 1½ per cent of its exports to India, making India the sixth largest exporter to Germany (after the USA, Russia, Britain, Austria-Hungary, France) and eighth largest importer from it (after Britain, Austria-Hungary, Russia, France, the USA, Belgium, Italy).

As of 1917-1918, India’s macroeconomics appear idyllic: an export surplus of £61.42 million, official reserves of £66.53 million, total claims on the rest of the world of £127.5 million (32.85 million troy ozs of gold), and a 1916-17 budget surplus of £6,594,885. The rupee, though legal tender only on the subcontinent, became what we might call a “super convertible” currency in being widely accepted in markets and stock markets from the Middle East through South East Asia to Australia.

Even at mid-century, India (without Pakistan) was still a trading power with 2 per cent of world exports and a rank of 16 in the world economy after the USA, Britain, West Germany, France, Canada, Belgium, Holland, Japan, Italy, Australia, Sweden, Venezuela, Brazil, Malaya and Switzerland. But then a collapse occurred over several decades to near insignificance in world trade and payments, from which India has yet to recover.

Of world merchandise exports, the subcontinent’s share fell to less than 1 per cent, and of Asia’s to less than 6 per cent, India accounting for two thirds; Malaysia alone accounted for more. Among 11 major developing countries (Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Israel, Yugoslavia), India’s share of manufactured exports fell from 65 per cent in 1953 to 51 percent in 1960 to 31 per cent in 1966 to 10 per cent by 1973. And this was before the entry of China.

Even India’s legendary textiles lost ground steadily. As of 1962-71, India held an average annual market-share of almost 20 per cent of manufactured textile imports into the USA; this fell to 10 per cent by 1972-81 and less than 5 per cent by 1982-91. India’s share of Britain’s imports of textile manufactures fell from 16 per cent in the early 1960s to less than 4 per cent in the 1990s. India may not be among the top thirty merchandise exporters of the world today, although there has been new growth seen in areas like pharmaceuticals and computer-services.

Causes of the collapse include Western protectionism as well as emergence of new technologies and new competitors willing to use these. But it was largely policy-induced. Between 1939 and 1945/46, Britain clamped draconian exchange-controls on what remained of the Sterling Area (which, besides Eqypt and Iraq, included the Empire and Commonwealth without Canada, Newfoundland and Hong Kong). The controls were relative to currencies outside the Sterling area, principally the US dollar.

The new India and new Pakistan, far from ending these war-time controls of their respective rupees (as Britain would itself do gradually with the pound) instead made them more draconian to include the Sterling area as well. Hence the Ricardo-Keynes dictum was breached – the rupee remained an inexpensive medium for internal circulation but was no longer convertible externally, indeed it had become open to being debauched the more easily.

Milton Friedman in November 1955 argued to the government of India that the new sovereign country should remove exchange controls completely and have a freely convertible rupee at a floating market-determined price on the pattern of the Canadian dollar, along with a steady predictable monetary climate. Far from debating such a proposal, the government ignored his advice, and his document was suppressed until I published it 34 years later in May 1989 at the University of Hawaii.

Intricate barriers, subsidies and licensing (based on war-time “essentiality” and “actual user” criteria) continued, now in name of import-substitution and “planning”. Major industries were nationalised, which became leading consumers of imports obtained by administrative rationing of foreign exchange earned by export sectors. Domestic business predictably diverted to the large protected markets that resulted. Import restrictions of consumer goods and gold expectedly led to smuggling and open corruption in Customs.

A vast parallel or “black” economy arose with its thriving “hawala” sector. The exchange-rate was seen as yet another administered price, not a reflection of demand for foreign relative to domestic moneys. Foreign currency earnings from exports were confiscated in exchange for rupees at the administered rate, then rationed first to meet foreign debt repayments and government expenditures abroad like maintenance of embassies, military imports, official foreign travel, etc; then for import of food, fertilisers, petroleum and inputs required by government firms; then for import demands of those private firms successful in obtaining import licenses; lastly, to satisfy demands of the public at large for purposes like travel or study abroad.

Not only was extension of war-time exchange-controls seen as axiomatic, the massive war-time deficit finance via money creation that the British had indulged in with India’s public finances, came to be permanently institutionalised in the name of socialist planning.

On 7 December 1952 the planners said: “The raison d’ être of a planned economy is the fullest mobilisation of available resources and their allocation so as to secure optimum results. There is no doubt that the Reserve Bank, which is a nationalised institution, will play its appropriate part in furthering economic development along agreed lines”’; and on 14 May 1956: “Insofar as government expenditure is financed by central bank credit, there is a direct increase in currency in circulation”.

The fate of India’s paper money was sealed. Just as the Bank of England could “theoretically lend the full amount” the UK government was authorised to spend by Parliament, and the US government had assurance the Federal Reserve “could and would see that the Treasury was supplied with all the money that it needed for war finance beyond those secured by taxation and by borrowing from non-bank sources”, so government of India expenditure over seven decades has been for all practical purposes assured of automatic limitless financing via money creation. Since more than two dozen state governments have no money-creating powers, their debts also effectively accrue to the government of India.

The next mention of money supply was 43 years later on April 5 1999 in the “Ninth Plan” when it was said a “viable monetary posture” was “to accept an average inflation rate in the region of 7 per cent per annum, which would justify a growth rate of money supply (base money) of 16 per cent per annum”. Recent money supply growth has been near 19-21 per cent per annum, and inflation properly measured has been well above 10 per cent. Hidden in thousands of pages of the “Tenth Plan” dated 21 December, 2002, a half century after “planning” started, is found it being said it is “financed almost entirely by borrowing… India’s public finance inherits the consequence of fiscal mismanagement in the past”.

Had the rupee been a hard currency, the vast amounts of government debt that have accumulated today could have been evaluated at world prices. As things stand, the value at world prices of the asset-sides of banks becomes an unknown, making profitability uncertain of the domestic securities’ market in general. This compounds myriad problems of the mostly nationalised banking system, candidly surveyed over years by James A. Hanson and summarised in his sentence: “The Ministry of Finance continues to run the public sector banks”. AC Harberger a decade ago called for “thorough understanding of the facts” and a “serious study of India’s fiscal deficits”.

“Where are they being parked? At what cost? And how much vacant parking space remains to be occupied before major problems emerge?” “… the authorities appear to have little sense of alarm about these deficits. Does this represent a myopic and irresponsible vision, aimed at surviving the moment while passing an ever greater burden to future governments and later generations? Or does it mean the authorities have studied the problem well, and that today’s deficits are being placed in convenient parking lots that still have plenty of unused capacity?”

As no such study has taken place, the possibility of “a myopic and irresponsible vision” takes credence. Besides, foreign lines of credit have become squeezed or closed by separate crises in the USA, Europe and Japan. India is far from being a creditor country able to help out with any world problems at present.

The last 20 years have seen liberalisation in consumer goods imports and travel and study abroad, and the rupee is no longer an administrative price for current account purposes. Indian firms have been permitted to do business abroad, Indian residents to send large cash gifts to relatives abroad, as well as relative liberalisation of gold imports. A natural technological revolution has been underway inducing real growth in India as in the rest of Asia, where populations are large and families stable: even small increases in capital-per-head, combined with modern communication technologies making travel or migration unnecessary, may explain rapid growth in productivity and output.

To move towards a currency of integrity today that befits the real growth requires comprehensive candid study of the structure of government liabilities and expenditures, systematic cleaning of government accounts at their roots, seeking to raise productivity of government investments and expenditures by better use of the audit function, as well as bringing coherence to fiscal and monetary policy through institutional changes in the processes of public decision-making, specifically, separating the banking and central banking functions from the Treasury function, while bringing the planning function to be one serving the Treasury function rather than pretending to be above it.

Waste or ostentation in public expenditure itself creates incentives for evasion of taxes; indeed, the untaxed economy may even have caused an underestimation of real growth being made. The road exists to be taken though it may be one that demands excessive political courage.

The author thanks Dr Warren Coats for constructive comments on earlier versions of this article.

Endnotes

  1. Friedman, Milton “A Memorandum to the Government of India 1955”, in Roy & James (1989).

  2. Friedman, Milton & Rose, Two Lucky People, 1998.

  3. Hanson, James A. “Indian Banking: Market Liberalization and the Pressures for Institutional and Market Framework Reform” in Krueger & Chinoy (2004).

  4. Harberger, Arnold C “Parking the Deficit – The Uncertain Link between Fiscal Deficits and Inflation-cum-Devaluation”, in Krueger & Chinoy (2004).

  5. Keynes, John Maynard, Indian Currency and Finance, 1913.

  6. Krueger, Anne O. & Sajjid Z. Chinoy (eds) Reforming India’s External, Financial and Fiscal Policies, 2004.

  7. Roy, Subroto, Pricing, Planning and Politics: A Study of Economic Distrtions in India, 1984.

  8. Roy, Subroto & WE James (eds), Foundations of India’s Political Economy: Towards an Agenda for the 1990s, 1989, 1992

 

My article “India’s Money” in the *Cayman Financial Review*, July 2012, is linked here.

Of related interest:

Monetary Integrity and the Rupee

Towards Making the Indian Rupee a Hard Currency of the World Economy: An analysis from British times until the present day

Revisiting “On Hindus and Muslims” in 2011…

From Facebook June 28 2011:

Hindus hear and enjoy the Azan as dusk falls, Muslims walk past and enjoy the smells of Hindu flowers and incense and the sounds of chants and temple bells — that is India, that is Kolkata, that is Indian secularism…

Revisiting “On Hindus and Muslims” (2009) November 3, 2009

It is four years exactly since I published “On Hindus and Muslims”.   I have had cause to revisit it today while saying at Facebook:

“Subroto Roy does not mind at all that 150 million Muslim Indians have been forbidden by their clergy from singing Vande Mataram — in fact rather sees their point of view. The Supreme Court of India also once upheld the right of two Jehovah’s Witnesses children who declined to sing Jana Gana Mana at school. India is a free country in such respects.

The Muslim point of view is that Muslim patriotism can be one of *love* for India without having to be one of *worship* of India — worship having to be reserved for Allah alone.

Hindus, for their part, do not take their own worship quite so seriously, and there is a lot of it — being happy enough to worship the mountains, the seas, the rivers, the birds and beasts and even sometimes other humans too…Or, for that matter, nothing at all…”

“Subroto Roy feels that if he had been Muslim by faith and a believer he may have preferred to live in a society where Muslims are a minority rather than one where almost everyone is Muslim. A Muslim believer allowed to freely practise among a majority of non-Muslims constantly finds faith reaffirmed within every day, whereas in a society where everyone is Muslim the problem always arises as to who is a bad, good or better Muslim.”

On Hindus and Muslims November 6, 2005

On Hindus and Muslims

by

Subroto Roy

First published in The Statesman, Perspective Page, Nov 6, 2005

The one practical contribution made to India’s polity by the Hindu Mahasabha was to thwart the Sarat Bose/Suhrawardy idea in 1946-1947 of a “United Bengal”, which inevitably would have led to Kolkata and West Bengal becoming part of Pakistan. The one practical contribution made to India’s polity by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh was to help defend against the Pakistani attack upon Jammu & Kashmir which commenced on 22 October 1947 and included the Rape of Baramulla a few days later. The RSS contribution may have been more than what Sheikh Abdullah and the National Conference or Jawaharlal Nehru and the Government of India cared to admit because it had had an offensive aspect as well; RSS attacks on Muslim civilians in the Mirpur-Pooncharea later formed the basis of Pakistan’s justification for the October 1947 attack and the origins of the “Azad Kashmir” idea. Practical contributions were also made by individuals like Shyama Prosad Mookerjee, who, for example, as a member of Nehru’s Cabinet, responded immediately to information received from a young Government of India officer in Karachi in September 1947, sending ships and Navy frigates from Bombay to retrieve thousands of Hindu refugees in danger of being massacred. The one theoretical contribution made by the Hindutvadi organisations in India has been to establish that it is not a matter of shame and can be a matter of pride to be a Hindu, or, more generally, to be an Indian in the modern world. This is important, even though most RSS and BJP members today may have altogether failed themselves to understand its nature and significance. Indeed, the small handful of Muslims who have been part of their organisations may have understood it rather better.

To be Muslim, a person has only to believe that God is One and Muhammad is the last of the prophets, i.e. to pronounce the Kalma. Nothing else is either necessary or sufficient. Praying daily, facing Mecca (or Jerusalem before it), going on pilgrimage, fasting during Ramzan, giving to the poor, circumcising boys, polygamy, inducing the modesty of women though seclusion or the veil, have all been part of Muslim practice for ever because they were aspects of the Prophet’s life. But if a Muslim did not pronounce the Kalma, everything else he/she might do is rendered meaningless. The Kalma is necessary and sufficient for Islamic belief. All else is incidental and logically superfluous.

The first half of the Kalma is a commitment to an austere monotheistic ontology; the second half is an oath of fidelity to the Prophet because he was the original exponent of this ontology (in Arabic). Muhammad (572-632 AD) was without a doubt among the greatest of men, as may be measured by his vast impact on human history. His total self-effacement and abhorrence of adulation was signified when at his death it was famously said “If you are worshippers of Muhammad, know that he is dead. If you are worshippers of God, know that God is living and does not die”.

Abul Kalam Azad understood well that there was no contradiction between being Muslim by faith and Indian by nationality. “My ancestors came to India from Herat in Babar’s time…” is how he began his autobiography. No one could think Azad anything but a proud Indian nationalist. No one ~ certainly not MA Jinnah ~ could think of Azad as anything but a Muslim and a scholar of Islam. Yet Azad’s respect and admiration (like that of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan) knew no bounds for the only reformer since Vivekananda that Hinduism has seen in the 20th century: a Congress politician by the name of MK Gandhi,who came to be murdered by Hindu fanatics. By contrast, Jinnah, the political founder of Pakistan, could see Congress only as a Hindu party and Gandhi the Hindu leader using Hindu symbols against whom he was juxtaposed in a struggle for power after the British left: “Congress leaders may shout as much as they like that the Congress is a national body. But …(the) Congress is nothing but a Hindu body,” he declared in 1938. Jinnah’s ambition, and that of the separatist Muslim elite, demanded that they rule themselves in isolation in corners of India.

Throughout the period of Hindu Westernisation in response to the opening to the world presented by the British Raj, the Muslim elite were instead chafing under the idea that an India free of British rule could possibly have Muslims living under governments composed of people who were not “People of the Book” mentioned in the Muslim scriptures. Even if British rule had been almost intolerable in Muslim eyes ~ rendering India’s territory dar-ul-harb at worst or dar-ul-aman at best ~ the British were at least “People of the Book”. After a British departure, rule over Muslims by a Hindu majority, supported by the much-feared Sikhs (“kaffirs with beards” in Muslim popular perception), was felt to be psychologically intolerable. Not only were Hindus, in Muslim eyes, polytheistic believers in idol-worship and practitioners of a caste-system, but everyone knew that the vast majority of India’s Muslims had been themselves converts from the same Hindu social and cultural origins, and there would be constant danger of relapse of Muslims into Hindu beliefs and practices if the country was governed by a Hindu majority. The slogan “Islam in danger” has always had substance in the sense that the faithful have constantly had to mind the dangers of yielding to temptations around them, including scepticism, syncretism and pantheism. Hence, insularity and communalism ~ a psychological circling of the wagons in terms of the American Wild West ~ was a natural political response of Muslims to the Hindu (and Parsee and Christian) modernisation of India in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Such were the implicit unspoken premises driving the Pakistan Movement which Iqbal and Jinnah came to lead in the 20th century. The origins lay in the thoughts and deeds of Shah Wali Allah (1703-1762) and his Arab contemporary in Nejd, Mohammad Ibn Abdal Wahhab, the founder of Wahhabism. It continued with men like Sayyid Ahmed Barelvi(1786-1831), and Titu Mir (1782-1831), until we reach the Islamic “moderniser” Sayyid Ahmed Khan who, while being the founder of Muslim higher education at Aligarh, was also the fountainhead of the separatism that led to the Muslim League’s creation in 1906. “We are an Arab people whose fathers have fallen in exile in the country of Hindustan, and Arabic genealogy and Arabic language are our pride,” Wali Allah had said. Barelvi after him declared: “We must repudiate all those Indian, Persian and Roman customs which are contrary to the Prophet’s teaching.” “In the later 1820s, (Barelvi’s) movement became militant, regarding jihad as one of the basic tenets of faith. Possibly encouraged by the British, with whom the movement did not feel powerful enough to come to grips at the outset, it chose as the venue of jihad the NW frontier of the subcontinent, where it was directed against the Sikhs. Barelvi temporarily succeeded in carving out a small theocratic principality which collapsed owing to the friction between his Pathan and North Indian followers; and he was finally defeated and slain by the Sikhs (at the battle of Balakot) in 1831,” points out Aziz Ahmed, in AL Basham’s A Cultural History of India. Barelvi’s jihadi proto-Pakistan state near Peshawar was named Tariqa-yi Muhammadiya; it may have survived at Sittana until the First World War. Leaving to one side Rahmat Ali’s lonely scheming from England and invention on the top floor of a London bus of the name “PAKSTAN”, such was the genesis of Iqbal and Jinnah’s Muslim state.

Azad, on behalf of scores of millions of Muslim Indians including Sheikh Abdullah and Zakir Hussain and Ghaffar Khan among the most prominent, candidly raised objections to this entire exercise: “I must confess that the very term Pakistan goes against my grain. It suggests that some portions of the world are pure while others are impure. Such a division of territories into pure and impure is un-Islamic and is more in keeping with orthodox Brahmanism which divides men and countries into holy and unholy – a division which is a repudiation of the very spirit of Islam. Islam recognises no such division and the Prophet says `God made the whole world a mosque for me’.”

Azad had seen that India is or can be dar-ul-Islam or at least dar-ul-aman and not dar-ul-harb, because the Muslim in this land of ours –bounded by the mountains and the seas, with the rivers in between them, all of which the Hindu finds sacred and imagines to be the home of the Hindu pantheon – is in fact able to practise his/her faith freely despite the majority culture superficially being or seeming to be one which is polytheistic and pantheistic. The majority culture in India has had no theoretical or practical difficulty with the recitation of the Kalma anywhere or anytime in the country. The handful of Muslims in the RSS and BJP today may have understood something of the same. Visiting Pakistanis today are amazed by two things in India: the presence of women in public life and the fact that Muslims are free to practise Islam. Muslims may privately believe their Hindu compatriots or cousins to be hopelessly ignorant of the truth, and vice-versa, but nothing in public life needs to hinge on such mutual beliefs people have about one another. That is what was meant when the present author said in the Introduction to Foundations of Pakistan’s Political Economy that Jinnah’s address to Pakistan’s Constituent Assembly was as secular as any that may be found.

Silver Jubilee of “Pricing, Planning & Politics: A Study of Economic Distortions in India”

May 29 2009:

It is a quarter century precisely today since my monograph Pricing, Planning and Politics: A Study of Economic Distortions in India was first published in London by the Institute of Economic Affairs.

ppp1984

Its text is now available (in slightly rough form) at this site here.

Now in May 1984, Indira Gandhi ruled in Delhi, and the ghost of Brezhnev was still fresh in Moscow.   The era of Margaret Thatcher in Britain and Ronald Reagan in America was at its height.   Pricing, Planning & Politics emerged from my 1976-1982 doctoral thesis at Cambridge though it came to be written in Blacksburg and Ithaca in 1982-1983.   It was the first critique after BR Shenoy of India’s Sovietesque economics since Jawaharlal Nehru’s time.

The Times, London’s most eminent paper at the time, wrote its lead editorial comment about it on the day it was published, May 29 1984.

londonti

It used to take several days for the library at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg to receive its copy of The Times of London and other British newspapers.    I had not been told of the date of publication and did not know of what had happened in London on May 29 until perhaps June 2 — when a friend, Vasant Dave of a children’s charity, who was on campus, phoned me and congratulated me for being featured in The Times which he had just read in the University Library.  “You mean they’ve reviewed it?”  I asked him, “No, it’s the lead editorial.” “What?” I exclaimed.  There was worse.  Vasant was very soft-spoken and said “Yes, it’s titled ‘India’s Bad Example'” — which I misheard on the phone as “India’s Mad Example”  😀

Drat! I thought (or words to that effect), they must have lambasted me, as I rushed down to the Library to take a look.

The Times had said

“When Mr. Dennis Healey in the Commons recently stated that Hongkong, with one per cent of the population of India has twice India’s trade, he was making an important point about Hongkong but an equally important point about India.   If Hongkong with one per cent of its population and less than 0.03 per cert of India’s land area (without even water as a natural resource) can so outpace India, there must be something terribly wrong with the way Indian governments have managed their affairs, and there is.   A paper by an Indian economist published today (Pricing, Planning and Politics: A Study of Economic Distortions in India by Subroto Roy, IEA £1.80) shows how Asia’s largest democracy is gradually being stifled by the imposition of economic policies whose woeful effect and rhetorical unreality find their echo all over the Third World.   As with many of Britain’s former imperial possessions, the rot set in long before independence.  But as with most of the other former dependencies, the instrument of economic regulation and bureaucratic control set up by the British has been used decisively and expansively to consolidate a statist regime which inhibits free enterprise, minimizes economic success and consolidates the power of government in all spheres of the economy.  We hear little of this side of things when India rattles the borrowing bowl or denigrates her creditors for want of further munificence.  How could Indian officials explain their poor performance relative to Hongkong?  Dr Roy has the answers for them.   He lists the causes as a large and heavily subsidized public sector, labyrinthine control over private enterprise, forcibly depressed agricultural prices, massive import substitution, government monopoly of foreign exchange transactions, artificially overvalued currency and the extensive politicization of the labour market, not to mention the corruption which is an inevitable side effect of an economy which depends on the arbitrament of bureaucrats.  The first Indian government under Nehru took its cue from Nehru’s admiration of the Soviet economy, which led him to believe that the only policy for India was socialism in which there would be “no private property except in a restricted sense and the replacement of the private profit system by a higher ideal of cooperative service.”  Consequently, the Indian government has now either a full monopoly or is one of a few oligipolists in banking, insurance, railways, airlines, cement, steel, chemicals, fertilizers, ship-building, breweries, telephones and wrist-watches.   No businessman can expand his operation while there is any surplus capacity anywhere in that sector.  He needs government approval to modernize, alter his price-structure, or change his labour shift.  It is not surprising that a recent study of those developing countries which account for most manufactured exports from the Third World shows that India’s share fell from 65 percent in 1953 to 10 per cent in 1973; nor, with the numerous restrictions on inter-state movement of grains, that India has over the years suffered more from an inability to cope with famine than during the Raj when famine drill was centrally organized and skillfully executed without restriction. Nehru’s attraction for the Soviet model has been inherited by his daughter, Mrs. Gandhi.  Her policies have clearly positioned India more towards the Soviet Union than the West.  The consequences of this, as Dr Roy states, is that a bias can be seen in “the antipathy and pessimism towards market institutions found among the urban public, and sympathy and optimism to be found for collectivist or statist ones.”  All that India has to show for it is the delivery of thousands of tanks in exchange for bartered goods, and the erection of steel mills and other heavy industry which help to perpetuate the unfortunate obsession with industrial performance at the expense of agricultural growth and the relief of rural poverty.”…..

I felt this may have been intended to be laudatory but it was also inaccurate and had to be corrected.  I replied dated June 4 which The Times published in their edition of  June 16 1984:

timesletter-11

I was 29 when Pricing, Planning and Politics was published, I am 54 now. I do not agree with everything I said in it and find the tone a little puffed up as young men tend to be; it was also five years before my main “theoretical” work Philosophy of Economics would be published. My experience of life in the years since has also made me far less sanguine both about human nature and about America than I was then. But I am glad to find I am not embarrassed by what I said then, indeed I am pleased I said what I did in favour of classical liberalism and against statism and totalitarianism well before it became popular to do so after the Berlin Wall fell. (In India as elsewhere, former communist apparatchiks and fellow-travellers became pseudo-liberals overnight.)

The editorial itself may have been due to a conversation between Peter Bauer and William Rees-Mogg, so I later heard. The work sold 700 copies in its first month, a record for the publisher. The wife of one prominent Indian bureaucrat told me in Delhi in December 1988 it had affected her husband’s thinking drastically. A senior public finance economist told me he had been deputed at the Finance Ministry when the editorial appeared, and the Indian High Commission in London had urgently sent a copy of the editorial to the Ministry where it caused a stir. An IMF official told me years later that he saw the editorial on board a flight to India from the USA on the same day, and stopped in London to make a trip to the LSE’s bookshop to purchase a copy. Professor Jagdish Bhagwati of Columbia University had been a critic of aspects of Indian policy; he received a copy  in draft just before it was published and was kind enough to write I had “done an excellent job of setting out the problems afflicting our economic policies, unfortunately government-made problems!”

Siddhartha Shankar Ray told me when  we first met that he had been in London when the editorial appeared and had seen it there; it affected his decision to introduce me to Rajiv Gandhi as warmly as he came to do a half dozen years later.

Within a few months though, by the Fall of 1984, I was under attack by the “gang of inert game theorists”  who had come to  Blacksburg following the departure of James Buchanan.  By mid 1985 I had moved to Provo, Utah, really rather wishing, as I recall,  to have left my India-work behind me.  But by late 1986, I was at the University of Hawaii, Manoa, where the perestroika-for-India and Pakistan projects that I and WE James led, had come to be sponsored by the University and the East West Center.

The unpublished results of the India-project reached Rajiv Gandhi by my hand on September 18 1990 as has been told elsewhere.  A week later, on September 25 1990,  Rajiv appointed a small group that included myself, to advise him.  It was that encounter with Rajiv Gandhi that sparked the origins of the 1991 economic reform.  Yet in 2007 one member of the group, declaring himself close to Sonia Gandhi, brazenly lied in public saying it was Manmohan Singh and not I who had been part of the group — a group of which I had been in fact the first member!  Manmohan Singh himself has never claimed to have been present and in fact was not even in India at the time it was formed.

I have explained elsewhere here why I believe this specific  lie  came to be told by this specific liar who shared membership with me in the group that Rajiv had formed:  because I had also pleaded with  many and especially within this group that Rajiv had seemed, to my layman’s eyes, very vulnerable to assassination, and none of them had lifted a finger to  do anything about it!  Such is how duplicity, envy and greed for power make people mendacious and venal in politics!

As for Pricing, Planning and Politics, Dr Manmohan Singh received a personal copy from my father whom he had long known through the Kaul brothers, Brahma and Madan, both of whom were dear friends of my father since the War and Independence.   From a letter Dr Singh wrote to my father,  he would have received his copy in late 1986 when he was heading the Planning Commission in his penultimate appointment before retirement from the bureaucracy.

Readers of Pricing, Planning and Politics today, 25 years after it was published, may judge for themselves what if any  part of it may be still relevant to the new government that Dr Singh is now prime minister of.   The work was mostly one of applied microeconomics or the theory of value; in recent years I have written much also of applied macroeconomics or the theory of money as it relates to India.  My great professor at Cambridge, Frank Hahn, was kind enough to say in 1985 that he thought my “critique of Development Economics was powerful not only on methodological but also on economic theory grounds”; that to me has been a special source of delight.

Subroto Roy

“I’m on my way out”: Siddhartha Shankar Ray (1920-2010)…

 

 

 

 

 

November 7, 2010

I  am grieved to hear of the death of Siddhartha Shankar Ray last night.

I was introduced to him by an uncle who had been his college-buddy, and he took up a grave personal matter of mine in the Supreme Court of India in 1990 with great kindness, charging me not a penny, being impressed by a little explicit “civil disobedience” I had had to show at the time towards Judge Evelyn Lance.

He also told me he and his wife had been in London on May 29 1984 and had seen *The Times*’s leader that day about my critique of Indian economic policy. He invited me to his Delhi home where I told him about the perestroika-for-India project I had led at the University of Hawaii since 1986, at which he, of his own accord, declared

“You must meet Rajiv Gandhi.  I will arrange a meeting”.

That led to my meeting with Rajiv Gandhi, then Congress President & Leader of the Opposition, on September 18 1990, which contributed to the origins of India’s 1991 economic reform as has been told elsewhere. https://independentindian.com/thoughts-words-deeds-my-work-1973-2010/rajiv-gandhi-and-the-origins-of-indias-1991-economic-reform/

Rajiv’s assistant George told me Rajiv had said he had not heard more fulsome praise.

In Bengal, he took me as a guest to visit the Legislative Assembly in session when he was Leader of the Opposition; it was the legislature of which my great grandfather, Surendranath Roy, had been a founder, being the first Deputy President and acting President too; Surendranath had been friends with his maternal grandfather, CR Das, leader of the Congress Party before MK Gandhi, and he said to me in the car heading to the legislature about that relationship in Bengal’s politics some seven decades earlier “They were friends”.

He introduced me to all the main leaders of the Bengal Congress at the time (except Mamata Banerjee who could not come) and I was tasked by him to write the manifesto for the State elections that year, which I did (in English, translated into Bangla by Professor Manjula Bose); the Communists won handily again but one of their leaders (Sailen Dasgupta) declared there had never been a State Congress manifesto of the sort before, being as it was an Orwell-like critique of Bengal’s Stalinism.

In a later conversation, I said to him I wished he be appointed envoy to Britain, he instead came to be appointed envoy to the USA.

In Washington in September 1993, he said “You must meet Manmohan Singh”, and invited me to a luncheon at the Ambassador’s Residence where, to Manmohan Singh and all his aides, he declared pointing at me

“The Congress manifesto (of 1991) was written on his (laptop) computer”.

In later years I kept him informed of developments and gave him my publications.   We last met in July last year where I gave him a copy, much to his delight, of *Margaret Thatcher’s Revolution: How it Happened and What it Meant*.

I said to him Bengal’s public finances were in abysmal condition, calling for emergency measures financially, and that Mamata Banerjee seemed to me to be someone who knew how to and would dislodge the Communists from their entrenched misgovernance of decades but not quite aware that dislodging a bad government politically was not the same thing as knowing how to govern properly oneself.

He,  again of his own accord, said immediately,

“I will call her and her main people to a meeting here so you can meet them and tell them that directly”.

It never transpired.

He and I were supposed to meet a few months ago but could not due to his poor health; on the phone in our last conversation I mentioned to him my plans of creating a Public Policy Institute — an idea he immediately and fully endorsed as being essential though adding

“I can’t be part of it,  I’m on my way out”.

“I’m on my way out”.   🙂

That was Siddhartha Shankar Ray — always intelligent, always good-humoured, always public-spirited, always a great Indian.

I shall miss a good friend, indeed my only friend among politicians other than the late Rajiv Gandhi himself.

Important summits in the USA, Russia, Copenhagen can be attended by the Prime Minister of India as he is not a Member of the Lok Sabha

Subroto Roy notes that since Dr Manmohan Singh is the first Indian Prime Minister ever to have chosen with deliberation not to be a member of the Lok Sabha, he has been free to hold important summits at the White House, Kremlin, Copenhagen etc while the Lok Sabha debates mundane matters like the Liberhan Commission report, inflation etc.

On the Existence of a Unique and Stable Solution to the Jammu & Kashmir Problem that is Lawful, Just and Economically Efficient

P Chidambaram may recall our brief interaction at the residence of the late Shri Rajiv Gandhi in September-October 1990, and also my visit in July 1995 when he was a member of Narasimha Rao’s Government.

I am delighted to read in today’s paper that he believes a “unique solution” exists to the grave mortal problem of Jammu & Kashmir.   Almost four years ago, I published in The Statesman my discovery of the existence of precisely such a  unique solution in the three-part article “Solving Kashmir”.

This came to be followed by “Law, Justice and J&K”, “History of Jammu & Kashmir”, “Pakistan’s Allies”, “What to tell Musharraf” and a few others.  The purpose of this open letter is to describe that solution which provides, I believe, the only just and lawful  path available to the resolution of what has been known universally as the Kashmir problem.

Very briefly, it involves recognizing that the question of lawful territorial sovereignty in J&K is logically distinct from the question of the choice of nationality by individual inhabitants.   The solution requires

(a) acknowledging that the original legal entity in the world system  of nations known as Jammu & Kashmir arose on March 16 1846 and ceased to exist on or about October 22 1947; that the military contest that commenced on the latter date has in fact resulted, given all particular circumstances of history, in the lawful and just outcome in international law;

(b) offering all who may be Indian nationals or stateless and who presently live under Article 370, a formal choice of nationality between the Republics of India, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan: citizen-by-citizen, without fear or favour, under conditions of full information, individual privacy and security; any persons who voluntarily choose to renounce Indian nationality in such private individual decisions would be nevertheless granted lawful permanent residence in the Indian Republic and J&K in particular.

In other words, the dismemberment of the original J&K State and annexation of its territories by the entities known today as the Republic of Pakistan and Republic of India that occurred since October 22 1947, as represented first by the 1949 Ceasefire Line and then by the 1972 Line of Control, is indeed the just and lawful outcome prevailing in respect of the question of territorial sovereignty and jurisdiction. The remaining democratic question has to do with free individual choice of nationality by inhabitants, under conditions of full information and privacy, citizen-by-citizen, with the grant of permanent residency rights by the Indian Republic to persons under its jurisdiction in J&K who might wish to choose, for deeply personal individual reasons, not to remain Indian nationals but become Afghan, Iranian or Pakistani nationals instead (or remain stateless).  Pakistan has said frequently its sole concern has been the freedom of Muslims of J&K under Indian rule, and any such genuine concern shall have been thereby fully met by India. Indeed if Pakistan agreed to act similarly this entire complex mortal problem of decades shall have begun to be resolved most appropriately. Pakistan and India are both wracked by corruption, poverty and bad governance, and would be able to mutually draw down military forces pit against one another everywhere, so as to begin to repair the grave damage to their fiscal health caused over decades by the deleterious draining away of vast public resources.

The full reasoning underlying this, which I believe to be the only lawful, just, efficient and stable solution that exists, is thoroughly explained in the following six articles. The first five, “Solving Kashmir”, “Law, Justice & J&K”, “History of J&K”, and “Pakistan’s Allies”, “What to Tell Musharraf” were published in The Statesman in 2005-2006 and are marked ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR and FIVE below, and are also available elsewhere here. The sixth “An Indian Reply to President Zardari”, marked SIX, was published for the first time here following the Mumbai massacres.

I believe careful reflection upon this entire body of reasoning may lead all reasonable men and women to a practically unanimous consensus about this as the appropriate course of action; if such a consensus happened to arise, the implementation of the solution shall only be a matter of (relatively) uncomplicated procedural detail.

Subroto Roy
October 15 2009

ONE
SOLVING KASHMIR: ON AN APPLICATION OF REASON by Subroto Roy First published in three parts in The Statesman, Editorial Page Special Article, December 1,2,3 2005, http://www.thestatesman.net

(This article has its origins in a paper “Towards an Economic Solution for Kashmir” which circulated in Washington DC in 1992-1995, including at the Indian and Pakistani embassies and the Carnegie Endowment, and was given as an invited lecture at the Heritage Foundation on June 23 1998. It should be read along with other articles also republished here, especially “History of J&K”, “Law, Justice and J&K” , “Understanding Pakistan”, “Pakistan’s Allies” and “What to Tell Musharraf”. The Washington paper and lecture itself originated from my ideas in the Introduction to Foundations of Pakistan’s Political Economy, edited by WE James and myself in the University of Hawaii project on Pakistan 1986-1992.)

I. Give Indian `Green Cards’ to the Hurriyat et al

India, being a liberal democracy in its constitutional law, cannot do in Jammu & Kashmir what Czechoslovakia did to the “Sudeten Germans” after World War II. On June 18 1945 the new Czechoslovakia announced those Germans and Magyars within their borders who could not prove they had been actively anti-fascist before or during the War would be expelled — the burden of proof was placed on the individual, not the State. Czechoslovakia “transferring” this population was approved by the Heads of the USA, UK and USSR Governments at Potsdam on August 2 1945. By the end of 1946, upto two million Sudeten Germans were forced to flee their homes; thousands may have died by massacre or otherwise; 165,000 remained who were absorbed as Czechoslovak citizens. Among those expelled were doubtless many who had supported Germany and many others who had not — the latter to this day seek justice or even an apology in vain. Czechoslovakia punished none of its nationals for atrocities, saying it had been revenge for Hitler’s evil (”badla” in Bollywood terms) and the post Cold War Czech Government too has declined to render an apology. Revenge is a wild kind of justice (while justice may be a civilised kind of revenge).

India cannot follow this savage precedent in international law. Yet we must recognise there are several hundred and up to several hundred thousand persons on our side of the boundary in the State of Jammu & Kashmir who do not wish to be Indian nationals. These people are presently our nationals ius soli, having been born in territory of the Indian Republic, and/or ius sanguinis, having been born of parents who are Indian nationals; or they may be “stateless” whom we must treat in accordance with the 1954 Convention on Stateless Persons. The fact is they may not wish to carry Indian passports or be Indian nationals.

In this respect their juridical persons resemble the few million “elite” Indians who have in the last few decades freely placed their hands on their hearts and solemnly renounced their Indian nationality, declaring instead their individual fidelity to other nation-states — becoming American, Canadian or Australian citizens, or British subjects or nationals of other countries. Such people include tens of thousands of the adult children of India’s metropolitan “elite”, who are annually visited abroad in the hot summer months by their Indian parents and relatives. They are daughters and sons of New Delhi’s Government and Opposition, of retired generals, air marshals, admirals, ambassadors, cabinet secretaries, public sector bureaucrats, private sector businessmen, university professors, journalists, doctors and many others. India’s most popular film-actress exemplified this “elite” capital-flight when, after a tireless search, she chose a foreign husband and moved to California.

The difference in Jammu & Kashmir would be that those wishing to renounce Indian nationality do not wish to move to any other place but to stay as and where they are, which is in Kashmir Valley or Jammu. Furthermore, they may wish, for whatever reason, to adopt, if they are eligible to do so, the nationality of e.g. the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan or the Islamic Republic of Iran or the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

They may believe themselves descended from Ahmad Shah Abdali whose Afghans ruled or mis-ruled Kashmir Valley before being defeated by Ranjit Singh’s Sikhs in 1819. Or they may believe themselves of Iranian descent as, for example, are the Kashmiri cousins of the late Ayatollah Khomeini. Or they may simply have wished to be, or are descended from persons who had wished to be on October 26 1947, citizens of the then-new British Dominion of Pakistan — but who came to be prevented from properly expressing such a desire because of the war-like conditions that have prevailed ever since between India and Pakistan. There may be even a few persons in Laddakh who are today Indian nationals but who wish to be considered Tibetans instead; there is, however, no Tibetan Republic and it does not appear there is going to be one.

India, being a free and self-confident country, should allow, in a systematic lawful manner, all such persons to fulfil their desires, and furthermore, should ensure they are not penalised for having expressed such “anti-national” desires or for having acted upon them. Sir Mark Tully, the British journalist, is an example of someone who has been a foreign national who has chosen to reside permanently in the Republic of India — indeed he has been an exemplary permanent resident of our country. There are many others like him. There is no logical reason why all those persons in Jammu & Kashmir who do wish not to be Indians by nationality cannot receive the same legal status from the Indian Republic as has been granted to Sir Mark Tully. There are already thousands of Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi and Nepalese nationals who are lawful permanent residents in the Indian Republic, and who travel back and forth between India and their home countries. There is no logical reason why the same could not be extended to several hundred or numerous thousand people in Jammu & Kashmir who may wish to not accept or to renounce their Indian nationality (for whatever personal reason) and instead become nationals, if they are so eligible, of the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran or Pakistan, or, for that matter, to remain stateless. On the one hand, their renunciation of Indian nationality is logically equivalent to the renunciation of Indian nationality by the adult children of India’s “elite” settled in North America and Western Europe. On the other hand, their wish to adopt, if they are eligible, a foreign nationality, such as that of Afghanistan, Iran or Pakistan, and yet remain domiciled in Indian territory is logically equivalent to that of many foreign nationals domiciled in India already like Sir Mark Tully.

Now if you are a permanent resident of some country, you may legally have many, perhaps most, but certainly not all the rights and duties of nationals of that country. e.g., though you will have to pay all the same taxes, you may not be allowed to (or be required to) vote in national or provincial elections but you may in local municipal elections. At the same time, permanently residing foreign nationals are supposed to be equal under the law and have equal access to all processes of civil and criminal justice. (As may be expected though from human frailty, even the federal courts of the USA can be notorious in their injustice and racism towards “Green Card” holders relative to “full” American citizens.) Then again, as a permanently resident foreigner, while you will be free to work in any lawful trade or profession, you may not be allowed to work in some or perhaps any Government agencies, certainly not the armed forces or the police. Many Indians in the USA were engineering graduates, and because many engineering jobs or contracts in the USA are related to the US armed forces and require US citizens only, it is commonplace for Indian engineers to renounce their Indian nationality and become Americans because of this. Many Indian-American families have one member who is American, another Indian, a third maybe Canadian, a fourth Fijian or British etc.

The same can happen in the Indian State of Jammu & Kashmir if it evolves peacefully and correctly in the future. It is quite possible to imagine a productive family in a peaceful Kashmir Valley of the future where one brother is an officer in the Indian Armed Forces, another brother a civil servant and a sister a police officer of the J&K State Government, another sister being a Pakistani doctor, while cousins are Afghan or Iranian or “stateless” businessmen. Each family-member would have made his/her choice of nationality as an individual given the circumstances of his/her life, his/her personal comprehension of the facts of history, his/her personal political and/or religious persuasions, and similar deeply private considerations. All would have their children going to Indian schools and being Indian citizens ius soli and/or ius sanguinis. When the children grow up, they would be free to join, if they wished, the existing capital flight of other Indian adult children abroad and there renounce their Indian nationality as many have come to do.

II Revealing Choices Privately with Full Information
For India to implement such a proposal would be to provide an opportunity for all those domiciled in Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Laddakh to express freely and privately as individuals their deepest wishes about their own identities, in a confidential manner, citizen by citizen, case by case. This would thereby solve the fundamental democratic problem that has been faced ever since the Pakistani attack on the original State of Jammu & Kashmir commenced on October 22 1947, which came to be followed by the Rape of Baramulla — causing the formal accession of the State to the then-new Dominion of India on October 26 1947.

A period of, say, 30 months may be announced by the Government of India during which full information would be provided to all citizens affected by this change, i.e. all those presently governed by Article 370 of the Indian Constitution. The condition of full information may include, for example, easy access to Afghan, Iranian and Pakistani newspapers in addition to access to Indian media. Each such person wishing to either remain with Indian nationality (by explicitly requesting an Indian passport if he/she does not have one already — and such passports can be printed in Kashmiri and Urdu too), or to renounce Indian nationality and either remain stateless or adopt, if he/she is so eligible, the nationality of e.g. Afghanistan, Iran, or Pakistan, should be administratively assisted by the Government of India to make that choice.

In particular, he/she should be individually, confidentially, and without fear or favour assured and informed of his/her new rights and responsibilities. For example, a resident of Kashmir Valley who chooses to become a Pakistani citizen, such as Mr Geelani, would now enjoy the same rights and responsibilities in the Indian Republic that Mr Tully enjoys, and at the same time no longer require a visa to visit Pakistan just as Mr Tully needs no visa to enter Britain. In case individual participants in the Hurriyat choose to renounce Indian nationality and adopt some other, they would no longer be able to legally participate in Indian national elections or J&K’s State elections. That is something which they say they do not wish to do in any case. Those members of the Hurriyat who chose e.g. Pakistani nationality while still residing in Jammu & Kashmir, would be free to send postal ballots or cross the border and vote in Pakistan’s elections if and when these occur. There are many Canadians who live permanently in the USA who cross home to Canada in order to cast a ballot.

After the period of 30 months, every person presently under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution would have received a full and fair opportunity to privately and confidentially reveal his/her preference or choice under conditions of full information. “Partition”, “Plebiscite”, and “Military Decision” have been the three alternatives under discussion ever since the National Conference of Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah and his then-loyal Deputy, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad, helped the Indian Army and Air Force in 1947-1948 fight off the savage attack against Jammu & Kashmir State that had commenced from Pakistan on October 22 1947. When, during the Pakistani attack, the Sheikh and Bakshi agreed to the Muslim Conference’s demand for a plebiscite among the people, the Pakistanis balked — the Sheikh and Bakshi then withdrew their offer and decisively and irrevocably chose to accede to the Indian Union. The people of Jammu & Kashmir, like any other, are now bound by the sovereign political commitments made by their forebears. Even so, given the painful mortal facts of the several decades since, the solution here proposed if properly implemented would be an incomparably more thorough democratic exercise than any conceivable plebiscite could ever have been.

Furthermore, regardless of the outcome, it would not entail any further “Partition” or population “transfer” which inevitably would degenerate into a savage balkanization, and has been ruled out as an unacceptable “deal-breaker” by the Indian Republic. Instead, every individual person would have been required, in a private and confidential decision-making process, to have chosen a nationality or to remain stateless — resulting in a multitude of cosmopolitan families in Jammu & Kashmir. But that is something commonplace in the modern world. Properly understood and properly implemented, we shall have resolved the great mortal problem we have faced for more than half a century, and Jammu & Kashmir can finally settle into a period of peace and prosperity. The boundary between India and Pakistan would have been settled by the third alternative mentioned at the time, namely, “Military Decision”.

III. Of Flags and Consulates in Srinagar and Gilgit
Pakistan has demanded its flag fly in Srinagar. This too can happen though not in the way Pakistan has been wishing to see it happen. A Pakistan flag might fly in the Valley just as might an Afghan and Iranian flag as well. Pakistan has wished its flag to fly as the sovereign over Jammu & Kashmir. That is not possible. The best and most just outcome is for the Pakistani flag to fly over a recognised Pakistani consular or visa office in Srinagar, Jammu and Leh. In diplomatic exchange, the Indian tricolour would have to fly over a recognised Indian consular or visa office in Muzaffarabad, Gilgit and Skardu.

Pakistan also may have to act equivalently with respect to the original inhabitants of the territory of Jammu & Kashmir that it has been controlling — allowing those people to become Indian nationals if they so chose to do in free private decisions under conditions of full information. In other words, the “Military Decision” that defines the present boundary between sovereign states must be recognised by Pakistan sincerely and permanently in a Treaty relationship with India — and all of Pakistan’s official and unofficial protégés like the Hurriyat and the “United Jehad Council” would have to do the same. Without such a sovereign commitment from the Government of Pakistan, as shown by decisive actions of lack of aggressive intent (e.g. as came to be implemented between the USA and USSR), the Government of India has no need to involve the Government of Pakistan in implementing the solution of enhancing free individual choice of nationality with regard to all persons on our side of the boundary.

The “Military Decision” regarding the sovereign boundary in Jammu & Kashmir will be so recognised by all only if it is the universally just outcome in international law. And that in fact is what it is.

The original Jammu & Kashmir State began its existence as an entity in international law long before the present Republics of India and Pakistan ever did. Pakistan commences as an entity on August 14 1947; India commences as an entity of international law with its signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 20 1918. Jammu & Kashmir began as an entity on March 16 1846 — when the Treaty of Amritsar was signed between Gulab Singh Dogra and the British, one week after the Treaty of Lahore between the British and the defeated Sikh regency of the child Daleep Singh.

Liaquat Ali Khan and Zafrullah Khan both formally challenged on Pakistan’s behalf the legitimacy of Dogra rule in Jammu & Kashmir since the Treaty of Amritsar. The Pakistani Mission to the UN does so even today. The Pakistanis were following Sheikh Abdullah and Jawaharlal Nehru himself, who too had at one point challenged Dogra legitimacy in the past. But though the form of words of the Pakistan Government and the Nehru-Abdullah position were similar in their attacks on the Treaty of Amritsar, their underlying substantive reasons were as different as chalk from cheese. The Pakistanis attacked the Dogra dynasty for being Dogra — i.e. because they were Hindus and not Muslims governing a Muslim majority. Nehru and Abdullah denounced monarchic autocracy in favour of mass democracy, and so attacked the Dogra dynasty for being a dynasty. All were wrong to think the Treaty of Amritsar anything but a lawful treaty in international law.

Furthermore, in this sombre political game of great mortal consequence, there were also two other parties who were, or appeared to be, in favour of the dynasty: one because the dynasty was non-Muslim, the other, despite it being so. Non-Muslim minorities like many Hindus and Sikhs in the business and governmental classes, saw the Dogra dynasty as their protector against a feared communalist tyranny arising from the Sunni Muslim masses of Srinagar Valley, whom Abdullah’s rhetoric at Friday prayer-meetings had been inciting or at least awakening from slumber. At the same time, the communalists of the Muslim Conference who had broken away from Abdullah’s secular National Conference, sought political advantage over Abdullah by declaring themselves in favour of keeping the dynasty — even elevating it to become an international sovereign, thus flattering the already pretentious potentate that he would be called “His Majesty” instead of merely “His Highness”. The ancestry of today’s Hurriyat’s demands for an independent Jammu & Kashmir may be traced precisely to those May 21-22 1947 declarations of the Muslim Conference leader, Hamidullah Khan.

Into this game stumbled the British with all the mix of cunning, indifference, good will, impatience, arrogance and pomposity that marked their rule in India. At the behest of the so-called “Native Princes”, the 1929 Butler Commission had hinted that the relationship of “Indian India” to the British sovereign was conceptually different from that of “British India” to the British sovereign. This view was adopted in the Cabinet Mission’s 12 May 1946 Memorandum which in turn came to be applied by Attlee and Mountbatten in their unseemly rush to “Divide and Quit” India in the summer of 1947.

It created the pure legal illusion that there was such a thing as “Lapse of Paramountcy” at which Jammu & Kashmir or any other “Native State” of “Indian India” could conceivably, even for a moment, become a sovereign enjoying the comity of nations — contradicting Britain’s own position that only two Dominions, India and Pakistan, could ever be members of the British Commonwealth and hence members of the newly created UN. British pusillanimity towards Jammu & Kashmir’s Ruler had even extended to making him a nominal member of Churchill’s War Cabinet because he had sent troops to fight in Burma. But the legal illusion had come about because of a catastrophic misunderstanding on the part of the British of their own constitutional law.

The only legal scholar who saw this was B R Ambedkar in a lonely and brilliant technical analysis released to the press on June 17 1947. No “Lapse of Paramountcy” over the “Native Princes” of Indian India could occur in constitutional law. Paramountcy over Indian India would be automatically inherited by the successor state of British India at the Transfer of Power. That successor state was the new British Dominion of India as well as (when it came to be finalised by Partition from India) the new British Dominion of Pakistan (Postscript: the deleted words represent a mistake made in the original paper, corrected in “Law, Justice & J&K” in view of the fact the UN in 1947 deemed India alone the successor state of British India and Pakistan a new state in the world system). A former “Native Prince” could only choose to which Dominion he would go. No other alternative existed even for a single logical moment. Because the British had catastrophically failed to comprehend this aspect of their own constitutional law, they created a legal vacuum whereby between August 15 and October 22-26 1947, Jammu & Kashmir became a local and temporary sovereign recognised only by the Dominion of Pakistan (until October 22) and the Dominion of India (until October 26). But it was not a globally recognised sovereign and was never going to be such in international law. This was further proved by Attlee refusing to answer the J&K Prime Minister’s October 18 1947 telegram.

All ambiguity came to end with the Pakistani attack of October 22 1947, the Rape of Baramulla, the secession of an “Azad Kashmir”declared by Sardar Ibrahim, and the Pakistani coup détat in Gilgit on October 31 1947 followed by the massacre of Sikh soldiers of the J&K Army at Bunji. With those Pakistani actions, Gulab Singh’s Jammu & Kashmir State, founded on March 16 1846 by the Treaty of Amritsar, ceased to logically exist as an entity in international law and fell into a state of ownerless anarchy. The conflict between Ibrahim’s Muslim communalists backed by the new Dominion of Pakistan and Abdullah’s secularists backed by the new Dominion of India had become a civil war within a larger intra-Commonwealth war that itself was almost a civil war between forces of the same military.

Jammu & Kashmir territory had become ownerless. The Roman Law which is at the root of all municipal and international law in the world today would declare that in the ownership of such an ownerless entity, a “Military Decision” was indeed the just outcome. Sovereignty over the land, waters, forests and other actual and potential resources of the erstwhile State of Jammu & Kashmir has become divided by “Military Decision” between the modern Republics of India and Pakistan. By the proposal made herein, the people and their descendants shall have chosen their nationality and their domicile freely across the sovereign boundary that has come to result.

TWO
LAW, JUSTICE AND J&K
by Subroto Roy First published in two parts in The Sunday Statesman, July 2 2006 and The Statesman July 3 2006 http://www.thestatesman.net Editorial Page Special Article

I.
For a solution to J&K to be universally acceptable it must be seen by all as being lawful and just. Political opinion in Pakistan and India as well as all people and parties in J&K ~ those loyal to India, those loyal to Pakistan, and any others ~ will have to agree that, all things considered, such is the right course of action for everyone today in the 21st Century, which means too that the solution must be consistent with the facts of history as well as account reasonably for all moral considerations.

On August 14, 1947, the legal entity known as “British India”, as one of its final acts, and based on a sovereign British decision made only two months earlier, created out of some of its territory a new State defined in international law as the “Dominion of Pakistan”. British India extinguished itself the very next day, and the newly independent “Dominion of India” succeeded to all its rights and obligations in international law. As the legal successor of the “India” which had signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and the San Francisco Declaration of 1945, the Dominion of India was already a member of the new UN as well as a signatory to many international treaties. By contrast, the Dominion of Pakistan had to apply afresh to sign treaties and become a member of international organisations. The theory put forward by Argentina that two new States, India and Pakistan, had been created ab initio, came to be rejected and was withdrawn by Argentina. Instead, Pakistan with the wholehearted backing of India was made a member of the UN, with all except Afghanistan voting in favour. (Afghanistan’s exceptional vote signalled presence of conflict over the Durand Line and idea of a Pashtunistan; Dr Khan Sahib and Abdul Ghaffar Khan were imprisoned by the Muslim League regime of NWFP which later supported the tribesmen who attacked J&K starting October 22, 1947; that conflict remains unresolved to this day, even after the American attack on the Taliban, the restart of a constitutional process in Afghanistan, and the purported mediation of US Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice.)

Zafrullah Khan, Pakistan’s distinguished first ambassador to the UN, claimed in September 1947: “Pakistan is not a new member of UNO but a successor to a member State which was one of the founders of the Organisation.” He noted that he himself had led India to the final session of the League of Nations in Geneva in 1939, and he wished to say that Pakistan had been present “as part of India… under the latter name” as a signatory to the Treaty of Versailles. This was, however, logically impossible. The Treaty of Versailles long predated (1) Mohammad Iqbal’s Allahabad Address which conceptualised for the first time in the 20th Century a Muslim State in Northwest India; (2) Rahmat Ali’s invention of the word “PAKSTAN” on the top floor of a London omnibus; (3) M. A. Jinnah and Fazlul Haq’s Lahore Resolution; and (4) the final British decision of June 3, 1947 to create by Partition out of “British India” a Dominion named Pakistan. Pakistan could not have acted in international law prior to having come into being or been created or even conceived itself. Zafrullah Khan would have been more accurate to say that the history of Pakistanis until August 14, 1947 had been one in common with that of their Indian cousins ~ or indeed their Indian brothers, since innumerable North Indian Muslim families came to be literally partitioned, with some brothers remaining Indians while other brothers became Pakistanis.

Pakistan was created at the behest of Jinnah’s Muslim League though with eventual agreement of the Indian National Congress (a distant ancestor of the political party going by the same name today). Pakistan arose not because Jinnah said Hindus and Muslims were “two nations” but because he and his League wished for a State where Muslims would find themselves ruled by fellow-Muslims and feel themselves part of a pan-Islamic culture. Yet Pakistan was intended to be a secular polity with Muslim-majority governance, not an Islamic theocracy. That Pakistan failed to become secular was exemplified most poignantly in the persecution Zafrullah himself later faced in his personal life as an Ahmadiya, even while he was Pakistan’s Foreign Minister. (The same happened later to Pakistan’s Nobel-winning physicist Abdus Salaam.) Pakistan was supposed to allow the genius of Indo-Muslim culture to flourish, transplanted from places like Lucknow and Aligarh which would never be part of it. In fact, the areas that are Pakistan today had in the 1937 provincial elections shown scant popular Muslim support for Jinnah’s League. The NWFP had a Congress Government in the 1946 elections, and its supporters boycotted the pro-Pakistan referendum in 1947. The imposition of Urdu culture as Pakistan’s dominant ethos might have come to be accepted later in West Punjab, Sindh and NWFP but it was not acceptable in East Bengal, and led inevitably to the Pakistani civil war and creation of Bangladesh by Sheikh Mujib in 1971.

In August 1947, the new Dominions of India and Pakistan were each supposed to protect their respective minority populations as their first political duty. Yet both palpably failed in this, and were reduced to making joint declarations pleading for peace and an end to communal killings and the abduction of women. The Karachi Government, lacking the wherewithal and administrative machinery of being a nation-state at all, and with only Liaquat and an ailing Jinnah as noted leaders, may have failed more conspicuously, and West Punjab, the Frontier and Sindh were soon emptied of almost all their many Sikhs and Hindus. Instead, the first act of the new Pakistan Government in the weeks after August 14, 1947 was to arrange for the speedy and safe transfer of the North Indian Muslim elite by air from Delhi using chartered British aeroplanes. The ordinary Muslim masses of UP, Delhi and East Punjab were left in danger from or were subjected to Sikh and Hindu mob attacks, especially as news and rumours spread of similar outrages against Pakistan’s departing minorities.

In this spiral of revenge attacks and counter-attacks, bloodshed inevitably spilled over from West and East Punjab into the northern Punjabi plains of Jammu, though Kashmir Valley remained conspicuously peaceful. Zafrullah and Liaquat would later claim it was this communal civil war which had caused thousands of newly decommissioned Mirpuri soldiers of the British Army, and thousands of Afridi and other Frontier tribesmen, to spontaneously act to “liberate” J&K’s Muslims from alleged tyranny under the Hindu Ruler or an allegedly illegal Indian occupation.

But the main attack on J&K State that began from Pakistan along the Manshera-Muzaffarabad road on October 22, 1947 was admittedly far too well-organised, well-armed, well-planned and well-executed to have been merely a spontaneous uprising of tribesmen and former soldiers. In all but name, it was an act of undeclared war of the new Dominion of Pakistan first upon the State of J&K and then upon the Indian Dominion. This became obvious to Field Marshall Auchinlek, who, as Supreme Commander of the armed forces of both India and Pakistan, promptly resigned and abolished the Supreme Command in face of the fact that two parts of his own forces were now at war with one another.

The invaders failed to take Srinagar solely because they lost their military purpose while indulging in the Rape of Baramula. Thousands of Kashmiri women of all communities ~ Muslim, Sikh and Hindu ~ were violated and transported back to be sold in markets in Peshawar and elsewhere. Such was standard practice in Central Asian tribal wars from long before the advent of Islam, and the invading tribesmen shared that culture. India’s Army and Air Force along with the militias of the secular democratic movement led by Sheikh Abdullah and those remaining loyal units of J&K forces, fought off the invasion, and liberated Baramula, Naushera, Uri, Poonch etc. Gilgit had a British-led coup détat against it bringing it under Pakistan’s control. Kargil was initially taken by the Pakistanis and then lost by them. Leh could have been but was not taken by Pakistani forces. But in seeking to protect Leh and to retake Kargil, the Indian Army lost the siege of Skardu ~ which ended reputedly with the infamous communication from the Pakistani commander to his HQ: “All Sikhs killed; all women raped.”

Legal theory
Now, in this grave mortal conflict, the legal theory to which both the Indian and Pakistani Governments have been wedded for sixty years is one that had been endorsed by the British Cabinet Mission in 1946 and originated with the Butler Commission of 1929. Namely, that “Lapse of Paramountcy” over the “Indian India” of the “Native States” could and did occur with the extinction of British India on August 15, 1947. By this theory, Hyderabad, J&K, Junagadh and the several other States which had not acceded to either Dominion were no longer subject to the Crown’s suzerainty as of that date. Both Dominions drew up “Instruments of Accession” for Rulers to sign upon the supposed “Lapse” of Paramountcy that was to occur with the end of British India.

Ever since, the Pakistan Government has argued that Junagadh’s Ruler acceded to Pakistan and Hyderabad’s had wished to do so but both were forcibly prevented by India. Pakistan has also argued the accession to India by J&K’s Ruler was “fraudulent” and unacceptable, and Sheikh Abdullah was a “Quisling” of India and it was not his National Conference but the Muslim Conference of Ibrahim, Abbas and the Mirwaiz (precursor of the Hurriyat) which represented J&K’s Muslims.

India argued that Junagadh’s accession to Pakistan or Hyderabad’s independence were legal and practical impossibilities contradicting the wills of their peoples, and that their integration into the Indian Dominion was carried out in an entirely legitimate manner in the circumstances prevailing.

On J&K, India has argued that not only had the Ruler requested Indian forces to fight off the Pakistani attack, and he acceded formally before Indian forces were sent, but also that democratic principles were fully adhered to in the unequivocal endorsement of the accession by Sheikh Abdullah and the National Conference and further by a duly called and elected J&K Constituent Assembly, as well as generations of Kashmiris since. In the Indian view, it is Pakistan which has been in illegal occupation of Indian territory from Mirpur, Muzaffarabad and Gilgit to Skardu all the way to the Khunjerab Pass, Siachen Glacier and K2, some of which it illegally ceded to its Communist Chinese ally, and furthermore that it has denied the peoples of these areas any democratic voice.

Roman law
In June 1947, it was uniquely and brilliantly argued by BR Ambedkar in a statement to the Press that the British had made a catastrophic error in comprehending their own constitutional law, that no such thing as “Lapse” of Paramountcy existed, and that suzerainty over the “Native States” of “Indian India” would be automatically transferred in international law to the successor State of British India. It was a legal illusion to think any Native State could be sovereign even for a single logical moment. On this theory, if the Dominion of India was the sole successor State in international law while Pakistan was a new legal entity, then a Native State which acceded to Pakistan after August 15, 1947 would have had to do so with the consent of the suzerain power, namely, India, as may be said to have happened implicitly in case of Chitral and a few others. Equally, India’s behaviour in integrating (or annexing) Junagadh and Hyderabad, would become fully explicable ~ as would the statements of Mountbatten, Nehru and Patel before October 1947 that they would accept J&K going to Pakistan if that was what the Ruler and his people desired. Pakistan unilaterally and by surprise went to war against J&K on October 22, declared the accession to India “fraudulent”, and to this day has claimed the territory of the original State of J&K is “disputed”. Certainly, even if the Ambedkar doctrine is applied that no “Lapse” was possible under British law, Pakistan did not recognise India’s jurisdiction there as the suzerain power as of August 15, 1947. Altogether, Pakistan’s sovereign actions from October 22 onwards amounted to acting to annex J&K to itself by military force ~ acts which came to be militarily resisted (with partial success) by India allied with Sheikh Abdullah’s National Conference and the remaining forces of J&K. By these military actions, Pakistan revealed that it considered J&K territory to have descended into a legal state of anarchy as of October 22, 1947, and hence open to resolution by “Military Decision” ~ as is indeed the just outcome under Roman Law, the root of all municipal and international law today, when there is a contest between claimants over an ownerless entity.

Choice of nationality
Hence, the present author concluded (“Solving Kashmir”, The Statesman December 1-3, 2005) that the dismemberment of the original J&K State and annexation of its territories by India and Pakistan that has occurred since 1947, as represented first by the 1949 Ceasefire Line and then by the 1972 Line of Control, is indeed the just and lawful outcome prevailing in respect of the question of territorial sovereignty and jurisdiction. The remaining “democratic” question described has to do with free individual choice of nationality by the inhabitants, under conditions of full information and privacy, citizen-by-citizen, with the grant of permanent residency rights by the Indian Republic to persons under its jurisdiction in J&K who may choose not to remain Indian nationals but become Afghan, Iranian or Pakistani nationals instead. Pakistan has said frequently its sole concern has been the freedom of the Muslims of J&K under Indian rule, and any such genuine concern shall have been thereby fully met by India. Indeed, if Pakistan agreed to act similarly, this entire complex mortal problem of decades shall have begun to be peacefully resolved. Both countries are wracked by corruption, poverty and bad governance, and would be able to mutually draw down military forces pit against one another everywhere, so as to begin to repair the grave damage to their fiscal health caused by the deleterious draining away of vast public resources.

THREE
HISTORY OF JAMMU & KASHMIR
by Subroto Roy First published in two parts in The Sunday Statesman, Oct 29 2006 and The Statesman Oct 30 2006, Editorial Page Special Article, http://www.thestatesman.net

At the advent of Islam in distant Arabia, India and Kashmir in particular were being visited by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims during Harsha’s reign. The great “Master of Law” Hiuen Tsiang visited between 629-645 and spent 631-633 in Kashmir (”Kia-chi-mi-lo”), describing it to include Punjab, Kabul and Kandahar. Over the next dozen centuries, Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim, Sikh and again Hindu monarchs came to rule the 85 mile long 40 mile wide territory on the River Jhelum’s upper course known as Srinagar Valley, as well as its adjoining Jammu in the upper plains of the Punjab and “Little Tibet” consisting of Laddakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.

In 1344, a Persian adventurer from Swat or Khorasan by name of Amir or Mirza, who had “found his way into the Valley and in time gained great influence at the Raja’s court”, proclaimed himself Sultan Shamsuddin after the death of the last Hindu monarchs of medieval Kashmir. Twelve of his descendants formed the Shamiri dynasty including the notorious Sikander and the just and tolerant Zainulabidin. Sikander who ruled 1386-1410 “submitted himself” to the Uzbek Taimur the Lame when he approached Kashmir in 1398 “and thus saved the country from invasion”. Otherwise, “Sikander was a gloomy ferocious bigot, and his zeal in destroying temples and idols was so intense that he is remembered as the Idol-Breaker. He freely used the sword to propagate Islam and succeeded in forcing the bulk of the population to conform outwardly to the Muslim religion. Most of the Brahmins refused to apostatise, and many of them paid with their lives the penalty for their steadfastness. Many others were exiled, and only a few conformed.”

Zainulabidin who ruled 1417-1467 “was a man of very different type”. “He adopted the policy of universal toleration, recalled the exiled Brahmins, repealed the jizya or poll-tax on Hindus, and even permitted new temples to be built. He abstained from eating flesh, prohibited the slaughter of kine, and was justly venerated as a saint. He encouraged literature, painting and music, and caused many translations to be made of works composed in Sanskrit, Arabic and other languages.” During his “long and prosperous reign”, he “constructed canals and built many mosques; he was just and tolerant”.

The Shamiri dynasty ended in 1541 when “some fugitive chiefs of the two local factions of the Makri and the Chakk invited Mirza Haidar Dughlat, a relation of Babar, to invade Kashmir. The country was conquered and the Mirza held it (nominally in name of Humayan) till 1551, when he was killed in a skirmish. The line… was restored for a few years, until in 1559 a Chakk leader, Ghazi Shah, usurped the throne; and in the possession of his descendants it remained for nearly thirty years.” This dynasty marks the origins of Shia Islam in Srinagar though Shia influence in Gilgit, Baltistan and Laddakh was of longer standing. Constant dissensions weakened the Chakks, and in 1586, Akbar, then at Attock on the Indus, sent an army under Raja Bhagwan Das into Srinagar Valley and easily made it part of his Empire.

Shivaism and Islam both flourished, and Hindu ascetics and Sufi saints were revered by all. Far from Muslims and Hindus forming distinct nations, here they were genetically related kinsmen living in proximity in a small isolated area for centuries. Indeed Zainulabidin may have had a vast unspoken influence on the history of all India insofar as Akbar sought to attempt in his empire what Zainulabidin achieved in the Valley. Like Zainulabidin, Akbar’s governance of India had as its “constant aim” “to conciliate the Hindus and to repress Muslim bigotry” which in modern political parlance may be seen as the principle of secular governance ~ of conciliating the powerless (whether majority or minority) and repressing the bigotry of the powerful (whether minority or majority). Akbar had made the Valley the summer residence of the Mughals, and it was Jahangir, seeing the Valley for the first time, who apparently said the words agar behest baushad, hamee in hast, hamee in hast, hamee in hast: “if Heaven exists, it is here, it is here, it is here”. Yet like other isolated paradises (such as the idyllic islands of the Pacific Ocean) an accursed mental ether can accompany the magnificent beauty of people’s surroundings. As the historian put it: “The Kashmiris remained secure in their inaccessible Valley; but they were given up to internal weakness and discord, their political importance was gone…”

After the Mughals collapsed, Iran’s Turkish ruler Nadir Shah sacked Delhi in 1739 but the Iranian court fell in disarray upon his death. In 1747 a jirga of Pashtun tribes at Kandahar “broke normal tradition” and asked an old Punjabi holy man and shrine-keeper to choose between two leaders; this man placed young wheat in the hand of the 25 year old Ahmed Shah Saddozai of the Abdali tribe, and titled him “Durrani”. Five years later, Durrani took Kashmir and for the next 67 years the Valley was under Pashtun rule, a time of “unmitigated brutality and widespread distress”. Durrani himself “was wise, prudent and simple”, never declared himself king and wore no crown, instead keeping a stick of young wheat in his turban. Leaving India, he famously recited: “The Delhi throne is beautiful indeed, but does it compare with the mountains of Kandahar?”

Kashmir’s modern history begins with Ranjit Singh of the Sikhs who became a soldier at 12, and in 1799 at age 19 was made Lahore’s Governor by Kabul’s Zaman Shah. Three years later “he made himself master of Amritsar”, and in 1806 crossed the River Sutlej and took Ludhiana. He created a fine Sikh infantry and cavalry under former officers of Napoleon, and with 80,000 trained men and 500 guns took Multan and Peshawar, defeated the Pashtuns and overran Kashmir in 1819. The “cruel rule” of the Pashtuns ended “to the great relief of Kashmir’s inhabitants”.

The British Governor-General Minto (ancestor of the later Viceroy), seeing advantage in the Sikhs staying north of the Sutlej, sent Charles Metcalfe, “a clever young civilian”, to persuade the Khalsa; in 1809, Ranjit Singh and the British in the first Treaty of Amritsar agreed to establish “perpetual amity”: the British would “have no concern” north of the Sutlej and Ranjit Singh would keep only minor personnel south of it. In 1834 and 1838 Ranjit Singh was struck by paralysis and died in 1839, leaving no competent heir. The Sikh polity collapsed, “their power exploded, disappearing in fierce but fast flames”. It was “a period of storm and anarchy in which assassination was the rule” and the legitimate line of his son and grandson, Kharak Singh and Nao Nihal Singh was quickly extinguished. In 1845 the Queen Regent, mother of the five-year old Dalip Singh, agreed to the Khalsa ending the 1809 Treaty. After bitter battles that might have gone either way, the Khalsa lost at Sobraon on 10 February 1846, and accepted terms of surrender in the 9 March 1846 Treaty of Lahore. The kingdom had not long survived its founder: “created by the military and administrative genius of one man, it crumbled into powder when the spirit which gave it life was withdrawn; and the inheritance of the Khalsa passed into the hands of the English.”

Ranjit Singh’s influence on modern J&K was even greater through his having mentored the Rajput Gulab Singh Dogra (1792-1857) and his brothers Dhyan Singh and Suchet Singh. Jammu had been ruled by Ranjit Deo until 1780 when the Sikhs made it tributary to the Lahore Court. Gulab Singh, a great grand nephew of Ranjit Deo, had left home at age 17 in search of a soldierly fortune, and ended up in 1809 in Ranjit Singh’s army, just when Ranjit Singh had acquired for himself a free hand to expand his domains north of the River Sutlej.

Gulab Singh, an intrepid soldier, by 1820 had Jammu conferred upon him by Ranjit Singh with the title of Raja, while Bhimber, Chibal, Poonch and Ramnagar went to his brothers. Gulab Singh, “often unscrupulous and cruel, was a man of considerable ability and efficiency”; he “found his small kingdom a troublesome charge but after ten years of constant struggles he and his two brothers became masters of most of the country between Kashmir and the Punjab”, though Srinagar Valley itself remained under a separate Governor appointed by the Lahore Court. Gulab Singh extended Jammu’s rule from Rawalpindi, Bhimber, Rajouri, Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, across Laddakh and into Tibet. His General Zorawar Singh led six expeditions into Laddakh between 1834 and 1841 through Kishtwar, Padar and Zanskar. In May 1841, Zorawar left Leh with an army of 5000 Dogras and Laddakhis and advanced on Tibet. Defeating the Tibetans at Rudok and Tashigong, he reached Minsar near Lake Mansarovar from where he advanced to Taklakot (Purang), 15 miles from the borders of Nepal and Kumaon, and built a fort stopping for the winter. Lhasa sent large re-inforcements to meet him. Zorawar, deciding to take the offensive, was killed in the Battle of Toyu, on 11-12 December 1841 at 16,000 feet.

A Laddakhi rebellion resulted against Jammu, aided now by the advancing Tibetans. A new army was sent under Hari Chand suppressing the rebellion and throwing back the Tibetans, leading to a peace treaty between Lhasa and Jammu signed on 17 September 1842: “We have agreed that we have no ill-feelings because of the past war. The two kings will henceforth remain friends forever. The relationship between Maharajah Gulab Singh of Kashmir and the Lama Guru of Lhasa (Dalai Lama) is now established. The Maharajah Sahib, with God (Kunchok) as his witness, promises to recognise ancient boundaries, which should be looked after by each side without resorting to warfare. When the descendants of the early kings, who fled from Laddakh to Tibet, now return they will not be stopped by Shri Maharajah. Trade between Laddakh and Tibet will continue as usual. Tibetan government traders coming into Laddakh will receive free transport and accommodations as before, and the Laddakhi envoy will, in turn, receive the same facilities in Lhasa. The Laddakhis take an oath before God (Kunchok) that they will not intrigue or create new troubles in Tibetan territory. We have agreed, with God as witness, that Shri Maharajah Sahib and the Lama Guru of Lhasa will live together as members of the same household.” The traditional boundary between Laddakh and Tibet “as recognised by both sides since olden times” was accepted by the envoys of Gulab Singh and the Dalai Lama.

An earlier 1684 treaty between Laddakh and Lhasa had said that while Laddakh would send tribute to Lhasa every three years, “the king of Laddakh reserves to himself the village of Minsar in Ngarees-khor-sum, that he may be independent there; and he sets aside its revenue for the purpose of meeting the expense involved in keeping up the sacrificial lights at Kangree (Kailas), and the Holy Lakes of Mansarovar and Rakas Tal”. The area around Minsar village near Lake Mansarovar, held by the rulers of Laddakh since 1583, was retained by Jammu in the 1842 peace-treaty, and its revenue was received by J&K State until 1948.

After Ranjit Singh’s death in 1839, Gulab Singh was alienated from the Lahore Court where the rise of his brothers and a nephew aroused enough Khalsa jealousy to see them assassinated in palace intrigues. While the Sikhs imploded, Gulab Singh had expanded his own dominion from Rawalpindi to Minsar ~ everywhere except Srinagar Valley itself. He had apparently advised the Sikhs not to attack the British in breach of the 1809 Treaty, and when they did so he had not joined them, though had he done so British power in North India might have been broken. The British were grateful for his neutrality and also his help in their first misbegotten adventure in Afghanistan. It was Gulab Singh who was now encouraged by both the British and the Sikhs to mediate between them, indeed “to take a leading part in arranging conditions of peace”, and he formally represented the Sikh regency in the negotiations. The 9 March 1846 Treaty of Lahore “set forth that the British Government having demanded in addition to a certain assignment of territory, a payment of a crore and a half of rupees, and the Sikh Government being unable to pay the whole”, Dalip Singh “should cede as equivalent to one crore the hill country belonging to the Punjab between the Beas and the Indus including Kashmir and the Hazara”.

For the British to occupy the whole of this mountainous territory was judged unwise on economic and military grounds; it was not feasible to occupy from a military standpoint and the area “with the exception of the small Valley of Kashmir” was “for the most part unproductive”. “On the other hand, the ceded tracts comprised the whole of the hereditary possessions of Gulab Singh, who, being eager to obtain an indefeasible title to them, came forward and offered to pay the war indemnity on condition that he was made the independent ruler of Jammu & Kashmir.

A separate treaty embodying this arrangement was thus concluded between the British and Gulab Singh at Amritsar on 16 March 1846.” Gulab Singh acknowledged the British Government’s supremacy, and in token of it agreed to present annually to the British Government “one horse, twelve shawl goats of approved breed and three pairs of Kashmir shawls. This arrangement was later altered; the annual presentation made by the Kashmir State was confined to two Kashmir shawls and three romals (handkerchiefs).” The Treaty of Amritsar “put Gulab Singh, as Maharaja, in possession of all the hill country between the Indus and the Ravi, including Kashmir, Jammu, Laddakh and Gilgit; but excluding Lahoul, Kulu and some areas including Chamba which for strategic purposes, it was considered advisable (by the British) to retain and for which a remission of Rs 25 lakhs was made from the crore demanded, leaving Rs 75 lakhs as the final amount to be paid by Gulab Singh.” The British retained Hazara which in 1918 was included into NWFP. Through an intrigue emanating from Prime Minister Lal Singh in Lahore, Imamuddin, the last Sikh-appointed Governor of Kashmir, sought to prevent Gulab Singh taking possession of the Valley in accordance with the Treaty’s terms. By December 1846 Gulab Singh had done so, though only with help of a British force which included 17,000 Sikh troops “who had been fighting in the campaign just concluded”. (Contemporary British opinion even predicted Sikhism like Buddhism “would become extinct in a short time if it were not kept alive by the esprit de corps of the Sikh regiments”.)

The British in 1846 may have been glad enough to allow Gulab Singh take independent charge of the new entity that came to be now known as the “State of Jammu & Kashmir”. Later, however. they and their American allies would grow keen to control or influence the region vis-à-vis their new interests against the Russian and Soviet Empires.

FOUR
PAKISTAN’S ALLIES
by Subroto Roy First published in two parts in The Sunday Statesman, June 4 2006, The Statesman June 5 2006, Editorial Page Special Article, http://www.thestatesman.net

From the 1846 Treaty of Amritsar creating the State of Jammu & Kashmir until the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Britain and later the USA became increasingly interested in the subcontinent’s Northwest. The British came to India by sea to trade. Barren, splendid, landlocked Afghanistan held no interest except as a home of fierce tribes; but it was the source of invasions into the Indian plains and prompted a British misadventure to install Shah Shuja in place of Dost Mohammad Khan leading to ignominious defeat. Later, Afghanistan was seen as the underbelly of the Russian and Soviet empires, and hence a location of interest to British and American strategic causes.

In November 1954, US President Dwight Eisenhower authorized 30 U-2 spy aircraft to be produced for deployment against America’s perceived enemies, especially to investigate Soviet nuclear missiles which could reach the USA. Reconnaissance balloons had been unsuccessful, and numerous Western pilots had been shot down taking photographs from ordinary military aircraft. By June 1956, U-2 were making clandestine flights over the USSR and China. But on May 1 1960, one was shot or forced down over Sverdlovsk, 1,000 miles within Soviet territory. The Americans prevaricated that it had taken off from Turkey on a weather-mission, and been lost due to oxygen problems. Nikita Kruschev then produced the pilot, Francis Gary Powers, who was convicted of spying, though was exchanged later for a Soviet spy. Powers had been headed towards Norway, his task to photograph Soviet missiles from 70,000 ft, his point of origin had been an American base 20 miles from Peshawar.

America needed clandestine “forward bases” from which to fly U-2 aircraft, and Pakistan’s ingratiating military and diplomatic establishment was more than willing to offer such cooperation, fervently wishing to be seen as a “frontline state” against the USSR. “We will help you defeat the USSR and we are hopeful you will help us defeat India” became their constant refrain. By 1986, the Americans had been permitted to build air-bases in Balochistan and also use Mauripur air-base near Karachi.

Jammu & Kashmir and especially Gilgit-Baltistan adjoins the Pashtun regions whose capital has been Peshawar. In August-November 1947, a British coup d’etat against J&K State secured Gilgit-Baltistan for the new British Dominion of Pakistan.

The Treaty of Amritsar had nowhere required Gulab Singh’s dynasty to accept British political control in J&K as came to be exercised by British “Residents” in all other Indian “Native States”. Despite this, Delhi throughout the late 19th Century relentlessly pressed Gulab Singh’s successors Ranbir Singh and Partab Singh to accept political control. The Dogras acquiesced eventually. Delhi’s desire for control had less to do with the welfare of J&K’s people than with protection of increasing British interests in the area, like European migration to Srinagar Valley and guarding against Russian or German moves in Afghanistan. “Sargin” or “Sargin Gilit”, later corrupted by the Sikhs and Dogras into “Gilgit”, had an ancient people who spoke an archaic Dardic language “intermediate between the Iranian and the Sanskritic”. “The Dards were located by Ptolemy with surprising accuracy on the West of the Upper Indus, beyond the headwaters of the Swat River (Greek: Soastus) and north of the Gandarae (i.e. Kandahar), who occupied Peshawar and the country north of it. This region was traversed by two Chinese pilgrims, Fa-Hsien, coming from the north about AD 400 and Hsuan Tsiang, ascending from Swat in AD 629, and both left records of their journeys.”

Gilgit had been historically ruled by a Hindu dynasty called Trakane; when they became extinct, Gilgit Valley “was desolated by successive invasions of neighbouring rulers, and in the 20 or 30 years ending with 1842 there had been five dynastic revolutions. The Sikhs entered Gilgit about 1842 and kept a garrison there.” When J&K came under Gulab Singh, “the Gilgit claims were transferred with it, and a boundary commission was sent” by the British. In 1852 the Dogras were driven out with 2,000 dead. In 1860 under Ranbir Singh, the Dogras “returned to Gilgit and took Yasin twice, but did not hold it. They also in 1866 invaded Darel, one of the most secluded Dard states, to the south of the Gilgit basin but withdrew again.”

The British appointed a Political Agent in Gilgit in 1877 but he was withdrawn in 1881. “In 1889, in order to guard against the advance of Russia, the British Government, acting as the suzerain power of Kashmir, established the Gilgit Agency”. The Agency was re-established under control of the British Resident in Jammu & Kashmir. “It comprised the Gilgit Wazarat; the State of Hunza and Nagar; the Punial Jagir; the Governorships of Yasin, Kuh-Ghizr and Ishkoman, and Chilas”. In 1935, the British demanded J&K lease to them for 60 years Gilgit town plus most of the Gilgit Agency and the hill-states Hunza, Nagar, Yasin and Ishkuman. Hari Singh had no choice but to acquiesce. The leased region was then treated as part of British India, administered by a Political Agent at Gilgit responsible to Delhi, first through the Resident in J& K and later a British Agent in Peshawar. J& K State no longer kept troops in Gilgit and a mercenary force, the Gilgit Scouts, was recruited with British officers and paid for by Delhi. In April 1947, Delhi decided to formally retrocede the leased areas to Hari Singh’s J& K State as of 15 August 1947. The transfer was to formally take place on 1 August.

On 31 July, Hari Singh’s Governor arrived to find “all the officers of the British Government had opted for service in Pakistan”. The Gilgit Scouts’ commander, a Major William Brown aged 25, and his adjutant, a Captain Mathieson, planned openly to engineer a coup détat against Hari Singh’s Government. Between August and October, Gilgit was in uneasy calm. At midnight on 31 October 1947, the Governor was surrounded by the Scouts and the next day he was “arrested” and a provisional government declared.

Hari Singh’s nearest forces were at Bunji, 34 miles from Gilgit, a few miles downstream from where the Indus is joined by Gilgit River. The 6th J& K Infantry Battalion there was a mixed Sikh-Muslim unit, typical of the State’s Army, commanded by a Lt Col. Majid Khan. Bunji controlled the road to Srinagar. Further upstream was Skardu, capital of Baltistan, part of Laddakh District where there was a small garrison. Following Brown’s coup in Gilgit, Muslim soldiers of the 6th Infantry massacred their Sikh brothers-at-arms at Bunji. The few Sikhs who survived escaped to the hills and from there found their way to the garrison at Skardu.

On 4 November 1947, Brown raised the new Pakistani flag in the Scouts’ lines, and by the third week of November a Political Agent from Pakistan had established himself at Gilgit. Brown had engineered Gilgit and its adjoining states to first secede from J&K, and, after some talk of being independent, had promptly acceded to Pakistan. His commander in Peshawar, a Col. Bacon, as well as Col. Iskander Mirza, Defence Secretary in the new Pakistan and later to lead the first military coup détat and become President of Pakistan, were pleased enough. In July 1948, Brown was awarded an MBE (Military) and the British Governor of the NWFP got him a civilian job with ICI~ which however sent him to Calcutta, where he came to be attacked and left for dead on the streets by Sikhs avenging the Bunji massacre. Brown survived, returned to England, started a riding school, and died in 1984. In March 1994, Pakistan awarded his widow the Sitara-I-Pakistan in recognition of his coup détat.

Gilgit’s ordinary people had not participated in Brown’s coup which carried their fortunes into the new Pakistan, and to this day appear to remain without legislative representation. It was merely assumed that since they were mostly Muslim in number they would wish to be part of Pakistan ~ which also became Liaquat Ali Khan’s assumption about J&K State as a whole in his 1950 statements in North America. What the Gilgit case demonstrates is that J&K State’s descent into a legal condition of ownerless anarchy open to “Military Decision” had begun even before the Pakistani invasion of 22 October 1947 (viz. “Solving Kashmir”, The Statesman, 1-3 December 2005). Also, whatever else the British said or did with respect to J & K, they were closely allied to the new Pakistan on the matter of Gilgit.

The peak of Pakistan’s Anglo-American alliance came with the enormous support in the 1980s to guerrilla forces created and headquartered in Peshawar, to battle the USSR and Afghan communists directly across the Durand Line. It was this guerrilla war which became a proximate cause of the collapse of the USSR as a political entity in 1991. President Ronald Reagan’s CIA chief William J. Casey sent vast sums in 1985-1988 to supply and train these guerrillas. The Washington Post and New Yorker reported the CIA training guerrillas “in the use of mortars, rocket grenades, ground-to-air missiles”. 200 hand-held Stinger missiles were supplied for the first time in 1986 and the New Yorker reported Gulbudin Hikmatyar’s “Hizbe Islami” guerrillas being trained to bring down Soviet aircraft. “Mujahideen had been promised two Stingers for every Soviet aircraft brought down. Operators who failed to aim correctly were given additional training… By 1986, the United States was so deeply involved in the Afghan war that Soviet aircraft were being brought down under the supervision of American experts”. (Raja Anwar, The Tragedy of Afghanistan, 1988, p. 234).

The budding US-China détente brokered by Pakistan came into full bloom here. NBC News on 7 January 1980 said “for the first time in history (a senior State Department official) publicly admitted the possibility of concluding a military alliance between the United States and China”. London’s Daily Telegraph reported on 5 January 1980 “China is flying large supplies of arms and ammunition to the insurgents in Afghanistan. According to diplomatic reports, supplies have arrived in Pakistan from China via the Karakoram Highway…. A major build-up of Chinese involvement is underway ~ in the past few days. Scores of Chinese instructors have arrived at the Shola-e-Javed camps.”

Afghan reports in 1983-1985 said “there were eight training camps near the Afghan border operated by the Chinese in Sinkiang province” and that China had supplied the guerrillas “with a variety of weapons including 40,000 RPG-7 and 20,000 RPG-II anti tank rocket launchers.” Like Pakistan, “China did not publicly admit its involvement in the Afghan conflict: in 1985 the Chinese Mission at the UN distributed a letter denying that China was extending any kind of help to the Afghan rebels” (Anwar, ibid. p. 234). Support extended deep and wide across the Arab world. “The Saudi and Gulf rulers … became the financial patrons of the Afghan rebels from the very start of the conflict”. Anwar Sadat, having won the Nobel Peace Prize, was “keen to claim credit for his role in Afghanistan…. by joining the Afghanistan jihad, Sadat could re-establish his Islamic credentials, or so he believed. He could thus not only please the Muslim nations but also place the USA and Israel in his debt.” Sadat’s Defence Minister said in January 1980: “Army camps have been opened for the training of Afghan rebels; they are being supplied with weapons from Egypt” and Sadat told NBC News on 22 September 1981 “that for the last twenty-one months, the USA had been buying arms from Egypt for the Afghan rebels. He said he had been approached by the USA in December 1979 and he had decided to `open my stores’. He further disclosed that these arms were being flown to Pakistan from Egypt by American aircraft. Egypt had vast supplies of SAM-7 and RPG-7 anti-aircraft and anti-tank weapons which Sadat agreed to supply to Afghanistan in exchange for new American arms. The Soviet weapons, being light, were ideally suited to guerrilla warfare. … the Mujahideen could easily claim to have captured them from Soviet and Afghan troops in battle.… Khomeini’s Iran got embroiled in war (against Iraq) otherwise Kabul would also have had to contend with the full might of the Islamic revolutionaries.” (Anwar ibid. p. 235).

Afghanistan had been occupied on 26-27 December 1979 by Soviet forces sent by the decrepit Leonid Brezhnev and Yuri Andropov to carry out a putsch replacing one communist, Hafizullah Amin, with a rival communist and Soviet protégé, Babrak Karmal. By 1985 Brezhnev and Andropov were dead and Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev had begun his attempts to reform the Soviet system, usher in openness, end the Cold War and in particular withdraw from Afghanistan, which by 1986 he had termed “a bleeding wound”. Gorbachev replaced Karmal with a new protégé Najibullah Khan, who was assigned the impossible task of bringing about national reconciliation with the Pakistan-based guerrillas and form a national government. Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan in February 1989 having lost 14,500 dead, while more than a million Afghans had been killed since the invasion a decade earlier.

Not long after Russia’s Bolshevik Revolution, Gregory Zinoviev had said that international communism “turns today to the peoples of the East and says to them, `Brothers, we summon you to a Holy War first of all against British imperialism!’ At this there were cries of Jehad! Jehad! And much brandishing of picturesque Oriental weapons.” (Treadgold, Twentieth Century Russia, 1990, p. 213). Now instead, the Afghan misadventure had contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Empire itself, the USSR ceasing to be a political entity by 1991, and even Gorbachev being displaced by Boris Yeltsin and later Vladimir Putin in a new Russia.

What resulted for the people of the USA and Britain and the West in general was that they no longer had to live under threat of hostile Soviet tanks and missiles, while the people of Russia, Ukraine and the other erstwhile Soviet republics as well as Eastern Europe were able to throw off the yoke of communism that had oppressed them since the Bolshevik Revolution and instead to breathe the air of freedom.

What happened to the people of Afghanistan, however, was that they were plunged into further ghastly civil war for more than ten years. And what happened to the people of Pakistan was that their country was left resembling a gigantic Islamist military camp, awash with airfields, arms, ammunition and trained guerrillas, as well as a military establishment enlivened as always by perpetual hope that these supplies, provisions and personnel of war might find alternative use in attacks against India over J& K. “We helped you when you wished to see the Soviet Union defeated and withdrawing in Afghanistan”, Pakistan’s generals and diplomats pleaded with the Americans and British, “now you must help us in our wish to see India defeated and withdrawing in Kashmir”. Pakistan’s leaders even believed that just as the Soviet Union had disintegrated afterwards, the Indian Union perhaps might be made to do the same. Not only were the two cases as different as chalk from cheese, Palmerstone’s dictum there are no permanent allies in the politics of nations could not have found more apt use than in what actually came to take place next.

Pakistan’s generals and diplomats felt betrayed by the loss of Anglo-American paternalism towards them after 1989.

Modern Pakistanis had never felt they subscribed to the Indian nationalist movement culminating in independence in August 1947. The Pakistani state now finally declared its independence in the world by exploding bombs in a nuclear arsenal secretly created with help purchased from China and North Korea. Pakistan’s leaders thus came to feel in some control of Pakistan’s destiny as a nation-state for the first time, more than fifty years after Pakistan’s formal creation in 1947. If nothing else, at least they had the Bomb.

Secondly, America and its allies would not be safe for long since the civil war they had left behind in Afghanistan while trying to defeat the USSR now became a brew from which arose a new threat of violent Islamism. Osama bin Laden and the Taliban, whom Pakistan’s military and the USA had promoted, now encouraged unprecedented attacks on the American mainland on September 11 2001 ~ causing physical and psychological damage which no Soviet, Chinese or Cuban missiles ever had been allowed to do. In response, America attacked and removed the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, once again receiving the cooperative use of Pakistani manpower and real estate ~ except now there was no longer any truck with the Pakistani establishment’s wish for a quid pro quo of Anglo-American support against India on J&K. Pakistan’s generals and diplomats soon realised their Anglo-American alliance of more than a half-century ended on September 11 2001. Their new cooperation was in killing or arresting and handing over fellow-Muslims and necessarily lacked their earlier feelings of subservience and ingratiation towards the Americans and British, and came to be done instead under at least some duress. No benefit could be reaped any more in the fight against India over Jammu & Kashmir. An era had ended in the subcontinent.

FIVE

WHAT TO TELL MUSHARRAF: PEACE IS IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT NON-AGGRESSIVE PAKISTANI INTENTIONS by Subroto Roy, First published in The Statesman December 15 2006 Editorial Page Special Article, www.thestatesman.net

In June 1989 a project at an American university involving Pakistani and other scholars, including one Indian, led to the book Foundations of Pakistan’s Political Economy: Towards an Agenda for the 1990s published in Karachi, New Delhi and elsewhere. The book reached Nawaz Sharif and the Islamabad elite, and General Musharraf’s current proposal on J&K, endorsed warmly by the US State Department last week, derives from the last paragraph of its editorial introduction: “Kashmir… must be demilitarised and unified by both countries sooner or later, and it must be done without force. There has been enough needless bloodshed on the subcontinent… Modern Pakistanis and Indians are free peoples who can voluntarily agree in their own interests to alter the terms set hurriedly by Attlee or Mountbatten in the Indian Independence Act 1947. Nobody but we ourselves keeps us prisoners of superficial definitions of who we are or might be. The subcontinent could evolve its political identity over a period of time on the pattern of Western Europe, with open borders and (common) tariffs to the outside world, with the free movement of people, capital, ideas and culture. Large armed forces could be reduced and transformed in a manner that would enhance the security of each nation. The real and peaceful economic revolution of the masses of the subcontinent would then be able to begin.”

The editors as economists decried the waste of resources involved in the Pakistan-India confrontation, saying it had “greatly impoverished the general budgets of both Pakistan and India. If it has benefited important sections of the political and military elites of  both countries, it has done so only at the expense of the general welfare of the masses.”

International law

Such words may have been bold in the early 1990s but today, a decade and a half later, they seem incomplete and rather naïve even to their author, who was myself, the only Indian in that project. Most significantly, the position in international law in the context of historical facts had been wholly neglected. So had been the manifest nature of the contemporary Pakistani state.

Jammu & Kashmir became an entity in international law when the Treaty of Amritsar was signed between Gulab Singh and the British on March 16 1846. British India itself became an entity in international law much later, possibly as late as June 1919 when it signed the Treaty of Versailles. As for Pakistan, it had no existence in world history or international law until August 14 1947, when the British created it as a new entity out of certain demarcated areas of British India and gave it the status of a Dominion. British India dissolved itself on August 15 1947 and the Dominion of India became its successor-state in international law on that date. As BR Ambedkar pointed out at the time, the new India automatically inherited British India’s suzerainty over any and all remaining “princely” states of so-called “Indian India”. In case of J&K in particular, there never was any question of it being recognised as an independent entity in global international law.

The new Pakistan, by entering a Standstill Agreement with J&K as of August 15 1947, did locally recognise J&K’s sovereignty over its decision whether to join Pakistan or India. But this Pakistani recognition lasted only until the attack on J&K that commenced from Pakistani territory as of October 22 1947, an attack in which Pakistani forces were complicit (something which, in different and mutating senses, has continued ever since). The Dominion of India had indicated it might have consented if J&K’s Ruler had decided to accede to Pakistan in the weeks following the dissolution of British India. But no such thing happened: what did happen was the descent of J&K into a condition of legal anarchy.

Beginning with the Pakistani attack on J&K as of October 22 upto and including the Rape of Baramulla and the British-led Pakistani coup détat in Gilgit on one side, and the arrival of Indian forces as well as mobilization by Sheikh Abdullah and Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad of J&K’s civilians to repel the Pakistani invaders on the other side, the State of Jammu & Kashmir became an ownerless entity in international law. In Roman Law, from which all modern international and municipal law ultimately derives, the ownership of an ownerless entity is open to be determined by “military decision”. The January 1949 Ceasefire Line that came to be renamed the Line of Control after the 1971 Bangladesh War, demarcates the respective territories that the then-Dominions and later Republics of India and Pakistan acquired by “military decision” of the erstwhile State of J&K which had come to cease to exist.

What the Republic of India means by saying today that boundaries cannot be redrawn nor any populations forcibly transferred is quite simply that the division of erstwhile J&K territory is permanent, and that sovereignty over it is indivisible. It is only sheer ignorance on the part of General Musharraf’s Indian interviewer the other day which caused it to be said that Pakistan was willing to “give up” its claim on erstwhile J&K State territory which India has held: Pakistan has never had nor even made such a  claim in international law. What Pakistan has claimed is that India has been an occupier and that there are many people inhabiting the Indian area who may not wish to be Indian nationals and who are being compelled against their will to remain so ~  forgetting to add that precisely the same could be said likewise of the Pakistani-held area.

Accordingly, the lawful solution proposed in these pages a year ago to resolve that matter, serious as it is, has been that the Republic of India invite every person covered under Article 370, citizen-by- citizen, under a condition of full information, to privately and without fear decide, if he/she has not done so already, between possible Indian, Iranian, Afghan or Pakistani nationalities ~ granting rights and obligations of permanent residents to any of those persons who may choose for whatever private reason not to remain Indian nationals. If Pakistan acted likewise, the problem of J&K would indeed come to be resolved. The Americans, as self- appointed mediators, have said they wish “the people of the region to have a voice” in a solution: there can be no better expression of such voice than allowing individuals to privately choose their own nationalities and their rights and responsibilities accordingly. The issue of territorial sovereignty is logically distinct from that of the choice of nationality by individual inhabitants.

Military de-escalation

Equally significant though in assessing whether General Musharraf’s proposal is an  anachronism, is Pakistan’s history since 1947: through Ayub’s 1965 attack, the civil war and secession of Bangladesh, the Afghan war and growth of the ISI, the Kargil incursion, the 1999 coup détat, and, once or twice removed, the 9/11 attacks against America. It is not a history that allows any confidence to arise in Indians that we are not dealing with a country misgoverned by a tiny arrogant exploitative military elite who remain hell-bent on aggression against us. Like the USA and USSR twenty years ago, what we need to negotiate about, and negotiate hard about, is an overall mutual military drawdown and de-escalation appropriate to lack of aggressive intent on both sides. Is General Musharraf willing to discuss that? It would involve reciprocal verifiable assessment of one another’s reasonable military requirements on the assumption that each was not a threatening enemy of the other. That was how the USA-USSR drawdown and de-escalation occurred successfully. If General Musharraf is unwilling to enter such a discussion, there is hardly anything to talk about with him. We should wait for democracy to return.

SIX

“AN INDIAN REPLY TO PRESIDENT ZARDARI: REWARDING PAKISTAN FOR BAD BEHAVIOUR LEADS TO SCHIZOPHRENIC RELATIONSHIPS”

by Subroto Roy, December 17 2008

Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari’s recent argument in the New York Times resembles closely the well-known publications of his ambassador to the United States, Mr Husain Haqqani. Unfortunately, this Zardari-Haqqani thesis about Pakistan’s current predicament in the world and the world’s predicament with Pakistan is shot through with clear factual and logical errors. These need to be aired because true or useful conclusions cannot be reached from mistaken premises or faulty reasoning.

1. Origins of Pakistan, India, J&K, and their mutual problems

Mr Zardari makes the following seemingly innocuous statement:

“…. the two great nations of Pakistan and India, born together from the same revolution and mandate in 1947, must continue to move forward with the peace process.”

Now as a matter of simple historical fact, the current entities in the world system known as India and Pakistan were not “born together from the same revolution and mandate in 1947”. It is palpably false to suppose they were and Pakistanis indulge in wishful thinking and self-deception about their own political history if they suppose this.

India’s Republic arose out of the British Dominion known as “India” which was the legal successor of the entity known previously in international law as “British India”. British India had had secular governance and so has had the Indian Republic.

By contrast, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan arose out of a newly created state in international law known as the British Dominion of Pakistan, consisting of designated territory carved out of British India by a British decision and coming into existence one day before British India extinguished itself. (Another new state, Bangladesh, later seceded from Pakistan.)

The British decision to create territory designated “Pakistan” had nothing to do with any anti-British “revolution” or “mandate” supported by any Pakistani nationalism because there was none. (Rahmat Ali’s anti-Hindu pamphleteering in London could be hardly considered Pakistani nationalism against British rule. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan’s Pashtun patriots saw themselves as Indian, not Pakistani.)

To the contrary, the British decision had to do with a small number of elite Pakistanis — MA Jinnah foremost among them — demanding not to be part of the general Indian nationalist movement that had been demanding a British departure from power in the subcontinent. Jinnah’s separatist party, the Muslim League, was trounced in the 1937 provincial elections in all the Muslim-majority areas of British India that would eventually become Pakistan. Despite this, in September 1939, Britain, at war with Nazi Germany, chose to elevate the political power of Jinnah and his League to parity with the general Indian nationalist movement led by MK Gandhi. (See, Francis Robinson, in William James and Subroto Roy (eds), Foundations of Pakistan’s Political Economy: Towards an Agenda for the 1990s.) Britain needed India’s mostly Muslim infantry-divisions — the progenitors of the present-day Pakistan Army — and if that meant tilting towards a risky political idea of “Pakistan” in due course, so it would be. The thesis that Pakistan arose from any kind of “revolution” or “mandate” in 1947 is fantasy — the Muslim super-elite that invented and endorsed the Pakistan idea flew from Delhi to Karachi in chartered BOAC Dakotas, caring not a hoot about the vulnerability of ordinary Muslim masses to Sikh and Hindu majority wrath and retaliation on the ground.

Modern India succeeded to the rights and obligations of British India in international law, and has had a recognized existence as a state since at least the signing of the Armistice and Treaty of Versailles in 1918-1919. India was a founding member of the United Nations, being a signatory of the 1945 San Francisco Declaration, and an original member of the Bretton Woods institutions. An idea put forward by Argentina that as of 1947 India and Pakistan were both successor states of British India was rejected by the UN (Argentina withdrew its own suggestion), and it was universally acknowledged India was already a member of the UN while Pakistan would have to (and did) apply afresh for membership as a newly created state in the UN. Pakistan’s entry into the UN had the enthusiastic backing of India and was opposed by only one existing UN member, Afghanistan, due to a conflict that continues to this day over the legitimacy of the Durand Line that bifurcated the Pashtun areas.

Such a review of elementary historical facts and the position in law of Pakistan and India is far from being of merely pedantic interest today. Rather, it goes directly to the logical roots of the conflict over the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) — a state that itself originated as an entity in the world system a full century before Pakistan was to do so and more than half a century before British India did, but which would collapse into anarchy and civil war in 1947-1949.

Britain (or England) had been a major nation-state in the world system recognized since Grotius first outlined modern international law. On March 16 1846, Britain entered into a treaty, the Treaty of Amritsar, with one Gulab Singh, and the “State of Jammu & Kashmir” came to arise as a recognizable entity in international law for the first time. (See my “History of Jammu and Kashmir” published in The Statesman, Oct 29-30 2006, available elsewhere here.)

Jammu & Kashmir continued in orderly existence as a state until it crashed into legal and political anarchy and civil war a century later. The new Pakistan had entered into a “Standstill Agreement” with the State of Jammu & Kashmir as of August 15 1947. On or about October 22 1947, Pakistan unilaterally ended that Standstill Agreement and instead caused military forces from its territory to attack the State of Jammu & Kashmir along the Mansehra Road towards Baramula and Srinagar, coinciding too with an Anglo-Pakistani coup d’etat in Gilgit and Baltistan (see my “Solving Kashmir”; “Law, Justice & J&K”; “Pakistan’s Allies”, all published in The Statesman in 2005-2006 and available elsewhere here).

The new Pakistan had chosen, in all deliberation, to forswear law, politics and diplomacy and to resort to force of arms instead in trying to acquire J&K for itself via a military decision. It succeeded only partially. Its forces took and then lost both Baramula and Kargil; they may have threatened Leh but did not attempt to take it; they did take and retain Muzaffarabad and Skardu; they were never near taking the summer capital, Srinagar, though might have threatened the winter capital, Jammu.

All in all, a Ceasefire Line came to be demarcated on the military positions as of February 1 1949. After a war in 1971 that accompanied the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan, that Ceasefire Line came to be renamed the “Line of Control” between Pakistan and India. An ownerless entity may be acquired by force of arms — the erstwhile State of Jammu & Kashmir in 1947-1949 had become an ownerless entity that had been dismembered and divided according to military decision following an armed conflict between Pakistan and India. The entity in the world system known as the “State of Jammu & Kashmir” created on March 16 1846 by Gulab Singh’s treaty with the British ceased to exist as of October 22 1947. Pakistan had started the fight over J&K but there is a general rule of conflicts that he who starts a fight does not get to finish it.

Such is the simplest and most practical statement of the history of the current problem. The British, through their own compulsions and imperial pretensions, raised all the talk about a “Lapse of Paramountcy” of the British Crown over the “Native Princes” of “Indian India”, and of how, the “Native Princes” were required to “accede” to either India or Pakistan. This ignored Britain’s own constitutional law. BR Ambedkar pointed out with unsurpassed clarity that no “Lapse of Paramountcy” was possible even for a single logical moment since “Paramountcy” over any “Native Princes” who had not joined India or Pakistan as of August 15 1947, automatically passed from British India to its legal successor, namely, the Dominion of India. It followed that India’s acquiescence was required for any subsequent accession to Pakistan – an acquiescence granted in case of Chitral and denied in case of Junagadh.

What the Republic of India means by saying today that boundaries cannot be redrawn nor any populations forcibly transferred is quite simply that the division of erstwhile J&K territory is permanent, and that sovereignty over it is indivisible. What Pakistan has claimed is that India has been an occupier and that there are many people inhabiting the Indian area who may not wish to be Indian nationals and who are being compelled against their will to remain so ~ forgetting to add that precisely the same could be said likewise of the Pakistani-held area. The lawful solution I proposed in “Solving Kashmir, “Law, Justice and J&K” and other works has been that the Republic of India invite every person covered under its Article 370, citizen-by-citizen, under a condition of full information, to privately and without fear decide, if he/she has not done so already, between possible Indian, Iranian, Afghan or Pakistani nationalities ~ granting rights and obligations of permanent residents to any of those persons who may choose for whatever private reason not to remain Indian nationals. If Pakistan acted likewise, the problem of J&K would indeed come to be resolved. The Americans, as self-appointed mediators, have said they wish “the people of the region to have a voice” in a solution: there can be no better expression of such voice than allowing individuals to privately choose their own nationalities and their rights and responsibilities accordingly. The issue of territorial sovereignty is logically distinct from that of the choice of nationality by individual inhabitants.

2. Benazir’s assassination falsely compared to the Mumbai massacres
Secondly, President Zardari draws a mistaken comparison between the assassination last year of his wife, Benazir Bhutto, and the Mumbai massacres a few weeks ago. Ms Bhutto’s assassination may resemble more closely the assassinations in India of Indira Gandhi in 1984 and Rajiv Gandhi in 1991.

Indira Gandhi died in “blowback” from the unrest she and her younger son and others in their party had opportunistically fomented among Sikh fundamentalists and sectarians since the late 1970s. Rajiv Gandhi died in “blowback” from an erroneous imperialistic foreign policy that he, as Prime Minister, had been induced to make by jingoistic Indian diplomats, a move that got India’s military needlessly involved in the then-nascent Sri Lankan civil war. Benazir Bhutto similarly may be seen to have died in “blowback” from her own political activity as prime minister and opposition leader since the late 1980s, including her own encouragement of Muslim fundamentalist forces. Certainly in all three cases, as in all assassinations, there were lapses of security too and imprudent political judgments made that contributed to the tragic outcomes.

Ms Bhutto’s assassination has next to nothing to do with the Mumbai massacres, besides the fact the perpetrators in both cases were Pakistani terrorists. President Zardari saying he himself has lost his wife to terrorism is true but not relevant to the proper diagnosis of the Mumbai massacres or to Pakistan-India relations in general. Rather, it serves to deflect criticism and condemnation of the Pakistani state’s pampered handing of Pakistan’s terrorist masterminds, as well as the gross irresponsibility of Pakistan’s military scientists (not AQ Khan) who have been recently advocating a nuclear first strike against India in the event of war.

3. Can any religious nation-state be viable in the modern world?

President Zardari’s article says:

“The world worked to exploit religion against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan by empowering the most fanatic extremists as an instrument of destruction of a superpower. The strategy worked, but its legacy was the creation of an extremist militia with its own dynamic.”

This may be overly simplistic. As pointed out in my article “Pakistan’s Allies”, Gregory Zinoviev himself after the Bolshevik Revolution had declared that international communism “turns today to the peoples of the East and says to them, ‘Brothers, we summon you to a Holy War first of all against British imperialism!’ At this there were cries of Jehad! Jehad! And much brandishing of picturesque Oriental weapons.” (Treadgold, Twentieth Century Russia, 1990, p. 213). For more than half of the 20th century, orthodox Muslims had been used by Soviet communists against British imperialism, then by the British and Americans (through Pakistan) against Soviet communism. Touché! Blowback and counter-blowback! The real question that arises from this today may be why orthodox Muslims have allowed themselves to be used either way by outside forces and have failed in developing a modern nation-state and political culture of their own. Europe and America only settled down politically after their religious wars were over. Perhaps no religious nation-state is viable in the modern world.

4. Pakistan’s behaviour leads to schizophrenia in international relations

President Zardari pleads for, or perhaps demands, resources from the world:

“the best response to the Mumbai carnage is to coordinate in counteracting the scourge of terrorism. The world must act to strengthen Pakistan’s economy and democracy, help us build civil society and provide us with the law enforcement and counterterrorism capacities that will enable us to fight the terrorists effectively.”

Six million pounds from Mr Gordon Brown, so much from here or there etc – President Zardari has apparently demanded 100 billion dollars from America and that is the price being talked about for Pakistan to dismantle its nuclear weapons and be brought under an American “nuclear umbrella” instead.

I have pointed out elsewhere that what Pakistan seems to have been doing in international relations for decades is send out “mixed messages” – i.e. contradictory signals, whether in thought, word or deed. Clinical psychologists following the work of Gregory Bateson would say this leads to confusion among Pakistan’s interlocutors (a “double bind”) and the symptoms arise of what may be found in schizophrenic relationships. (See my article “Do President-elect Obama’s Pakistan specialists believe…”; on the “double bind” theory, an article I chanced to publish in the Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1986, may be of interest).

Here are a typical set of “mixed messages” emanating from Pakistan’s government and opinion-makers:

“We have nuclear weapons
“We keep our nuclear weapons safe from any misuse or unauthorized use
“We are willing to use nuclear weapons in a first strike against India
“We do not comprehend the lessons of Hiroshima-Nagasaki
“We do not comprehend the destruction India will visit upon us if we strike them
“We are dangerous so we must not be threatened in any way
“We are peace-loving and want to live in peace with India and Afghanistan
“We love to play cricket with India and watch Bollywood movies
“We love our Pakistan Army as it is one public institution that works
“We know the Pakistan Army has backed armed militias against India in the past
“We know these militias have caused terrorist attacks
“We are not responsible for any terrorist attacks
“We do not harbour any terrorists
“We believe the world should pay us to not use or sell our nuclear weapons
“We believe the world should pay us to not encourage the terrorists in our country
“We believe the world should pay us to prevent terrorists from using our nuclear weapons
“We hate India and do not want to become like India
“We love India and want to become like India
“We are India and we are not India…”

Etc.

A mature rational responsible and self-confident Pakistan would have said instead:

“We apologise to India and other countries for the outrageous murders our nationals have committed in Mumbai and elsewhere
“We ask the world to watch how our professional army is deployed to disarm civilian and all “non-state” actors of unauthorized firearms and explosives
“We do not need and will not demand or accept a dollar in any sort of foreign aid, military or civilian, to solve our problems
“We realize our economic and political institutions are a mess and we must clean them up
“We will strive to build a society imbued with what Iqbal described as the spirit of modern times..”

As someone who created at great personal cost at an American university twenty years ago the book Foundations of Pakistan’s Political Economy: Towards an Agenda for the 1990s, I have a special interest in hoping that Pakistan shall find the path of wisdom.”

Finally, a dozen years late, the Sonia-Manmohan Congress takes a small Rajivist step: Yes Prime Minister, our Judiciary is indeed a premier public good (or example of “infrastructure” to use that dreadful bureaucratic term)

I was very harsh and did not beat about the bush in my Sep 23-24 2007 article  in The Statesman “Against Quackery” when I said in its subtitle

“Manmohan and Sonia have violated Rajiv Gandhi’s intended reforms”.

I said inter alia

“WASTE, fraud and abuse are inevitable in the use and allocation of public property and resources in India as elsewhere, but Government is supposed to fight and resist such tendencies. The Sonia-Manmohan Government have done the opposite, aiding and abetting a wasteful anti-economics ~ i.e., an economic quackery. Vajpayee-Advani and other Governments, including Narasimha-Manmohan in 1991-1996, were just as complicit in the perverse policy-making. So have been State Governments of all regional parties like the CPI-M in West Bengal, DMK/ AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, Congress/NCP/ BJP/Sena in Maharashtra, TDP /Congress in Andhra Pradesh, SP/BJP/BSP in Uttar Pradesh etc. Our dismal politics merely has the pot calling the kettle black while national self-delusion and superstition reign in the absence of reason. The general pattern is one of well-informed, moneyed, mostly city-based special interest groups (especially including organised capital and organised labour) dominating government agendas at the cost of ill-informed, diffused anonymous individual citizens ~ peasants, small businessmen, non-unionized workers, old people, housewives, medical students etc….Rajiv Gandhi had a sense of noblesse oblige out of remembrance of his father and maternal grandfather. After his assassination, the comprador business press credited Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh with having originated the 1991 economic reform. In May 2002, however, the Congress Party itself passed a resolution proposed by Digvijay Singh explicitly stating Rajiv and not either of them was to be so credited. The resolution was intended to flatter Sonia Gandhi but there was truth in it too. Rajiv, a pilot who knew no political economy, was a quick learner with intelligence to know a good idea when he saw one and enough grace to acknowledge it. …Rajiv was entirely convinced when the suggestion was made to him in September 1990 that an enormous infusion of public resources was needed into the judicial system for promotion and improvement of the Rule of Law in the country, a pre-requisite almost for a new market orientation. Capitalism without the Rule of Law can quickly degenerate into an illiberal hell of cronyism and anarchy which is what has tended to happen since 1991. The resources put since Independence to the proper working of our judiciary from the Supreme Court and High Courts downwards have been abysmal, while the state of prisons, borstals, mental asylums and other institutions of involuntary detention is nothing short of pathetic. Only police forces, like the military, paramilitary and bureaucracies, have bloated in size….Neither Sonia-Manmohan nor the BJP or Communists have thought promotion of the Rule of Law in India to be worth much serious thought ~ certainly less important than attending bogus international conclaves and summits to sign expensive deals for arms, aircraft, reactors etc. Yet Rajiv Gandhi, at a 10 Janpath meeting on 23 March 1991 when he received the liberalisation proposals he had authorized, explicitly avowed the importance of greater resources towards the Judiciary. Dr Singh and his acolytes were not in that loop, indeed they precisely represented the bureaucratic ancien regime intended to be changed, and hence have seemed quite uncomprehending of the roots of the intended reforms ever since 1991.”

Days after the article appeared there were press reports Dr Singh was murmuring about quitting, and then came a fierce speech in Hindi from the Congress President saying “enemies” would receive their dues or whatever – only to be retracted a few days later saying that no more had been meant than a local critique of the BJP in Haryana politics!  (Phew! I said to myself in relief…)

Today I am very happy to learn that Dr Manmohan Singh spoke on Sunday of the importance of the Rule of Law and an effective and efficient judiciary. The new Law Minister in the second Sonia-Manmohan Government has been eagerly saying the same.

All this is constructive and positive, late as it is since Sonia Gandhi and Manmohan Singh both became heavy-duty Congress Party politicians for the first time a dozen years ago.

I was privileged to advise a previous Congress President in his last months from September 1990 as has been told elsewhere. And six years before that I had  said:

“….….The most serious examples of the malfunctioning of civil government in India are probably the failure to take feasible public precautions against the monsoons and the disarray of the judicial system. …The Statesman lamented in July 1980:`The simplest matter takes an inordinate amount of time, remedies seldom being available to those without means or influence. Of the more than 16,000 cases pending in the Supreme Court, about 5,000 were introduced more than five years ago; while nearly 16,000 of the backlog of more than 600,000 cases in our high courts have been hanging fire for over a decade. Allahabad is the worst offender but there are about 75,000 uncleared cases in the Calcutta High Court in addition to well over a million in West Bengal’s lower courts.” Such a state of affairs has been caused not only by lazy and corrupt policemen, court clerks and lawyers, but also by the paucity of judges and magistrates. . . . a vast volume of laws provokes endless litigation as much because of poor drafting which leads to disputes over interpretation as because they appear to violate particular rights and privileges…. When governments determinedly do what they need not or should not do, it may be expected that they will fail to do what civil government positively should be doing.” A few months ago was the 25th anniversary of this statement… ! 🙂

Yes Prime Minister, having an effective and efficient judiciary is indeed a premier public good and one that has failed to be provided to India’s people from Nehru’s time and through Indira’s. I managed to persuade Rajiv about it completely. Might I next be so bold as to draw attention as well to the paragraphs of the 2007 article that followed?

“Similarly, Rajiv comprehended when it was said to him that the primary fiscal problem faced by India is the vast and uncontrolled public debt, interest payments on which suck dry all public budgets leaving no room for provision of public goods.  Government accounts: Government has been routinely “rolling over” its domestic debt in the asset-portfolios of the nationalised banks while displaying and highlighting only its new additional borrowing in a year as the “Fiscal Deficit”. More than two dozen States have been doing the same and their liabilities ultimately accrue to the Union too. The stock of public debt in India is Rs 30 trillion (Rs 30 lakh crore) at least, and portends a hyperinflation in the future. There has been no serious recognition of this since it is political and bureaucratic actions that have been causing the problem. Proper recognition would entail systematically cleaning up the budgets and accounts of every single governmental entity in the country: the Union, every State, every district and municipality, every publicly funded entity or organisation, and at the same time improving public decision-making capacity so that once budgets and accounts recover from grave sickness over decades, functioning institutions exist for their proper future management. All this would also stop corruption in its tracks, and release resources for valuable public goods and services like the Judiciary, School Education and Basic Health. Institutions for improved political and administrative decision-making are needed throughout the country if public preferences with respect to raising and allocating common resources are to be elicited and then translated into actual delivery of public goods and services. Our dysfunctional legislatures will have to do at least a little of what they are supposed to. When public budgets and accounts are healthy and we have functioning public goods and services, macroeconomic conditions would have been created for the paper-rupee to once more become a money as good as gold ~ a convertible world currency for all of India’s people, not merely the metropolitan special interest groups that have been controlling our governments and their agendas.”

Subroto Roy

Kolkata


Does the Govt. of India assume “foreign investors and analysts” are a key constituency for Indian economic policy-making? If so, why so? Have Govt. economists “learnt nothing, forgotten everything”? Some Bastille Day thoughts

Today is Bastille Day in France and the Prime Minister of India, Dr Manmohan Singh, at the invitation of President Sarkozy, is visiting Paris (where the Government of India has flown in military contingents to participate in the annual parade), before he goes to another summit in Egypt with Present Mubarak and others, following his recent summits in Italy with the Pope and others, and in Russia with President Medvedev and others, and in London with President Obama and others, etc.   Dr Singh has  almost certainly become the most internationally well-travelled of all Indian leaders on official visits ever in history, which adds to his having had the longest experience in India’s bureaucracy of any Indian political leader in history, which came to be followed by his stint in the Rajya Sabha as Finance Minister and now as a two-term Prime Minister.

But as a result of being out of the country yesterday, the Prime Minister would have missed the TV interview broadcast last night with his chief economic policy aide when it was said that “foreign investors and analysts” are an important constituency for Indian economic policy-makers, as expressed in the President’s speech to the new 15th Lok Sabha or Pranab Mukherjee’s Budget speech last week.  The interviewer seemed to agree and constantly pressed the aide, who is doubtless the most prominent Government economist on television,  about how stock-market brokers and businessmen seemed to have found the Budget not to their immediate liking, and how  privatisation or “raising insurance caps” would have been seen by businessmen as  crucial elements of future economic reform.  In fact privatisation or the insurance business have little to do with any important economic reform but the lobbying power and spin-control of  organised business becomes manifest in getting interviewers to ask such questions of Government spokesmen —  all part of the (doubtless unconscious) process of camouflaging their private interests in the guise of purported public economic policy discussion.

I have taken a very different view.  For example, I said a few years ago in starkest contrast:

“Running through the new foreign policy is a fiction that it is driven by a new economic motivation to improve development and mass well-being in India. The bizarre idea of creating hundreds of so-called “Special Economic Zones” (reminiscent of 17th and 18th Century colonial fortifications) illustrates this. India’s ordinary anonymous masses ~ certainly the 850 million people entirely outside the organised sector ~ have little or nothing to do with any of this. Benefits will accrue only to the ten million Indian nomenclatura controlling or having access to the gaping exit holes to the outside world in the new semi-closed economy with its endless deficit finance paid for by unlimited printing of an inconvertible domestic currency. It is as fallacious to think private investment from foreign or domestic businessmen will support public “infrastructure” creation as it is to think foreign exchange reserves are like tax revenues in being available for Government expenditure on “infrastructure”. Such fallacies are intellectual products of either those who know no economics at all or those who have forgotten whatever little they might have been once mistaught in their youth. What serious economics does say is that Government should generally have nothing to do with any kind of private business, and instead should focus on properly providing public goods and services, encourage competition in all avenues of economic activity and prevent or regulate monopoly, and see to it all firms pay taxes they are due to pay.  That is it. It is as bad for Government to be pampering organised foreign or domestic business or organised labour with innumerable subsidies, as has been happening in India for decades, as it is to make enterprise difficult with red tape and hurdles. Businessmen are grown ups and should be allowed to freely risk their capital and make their profits or their losses without public intervention. An economics-based policy would have single-mindedly sought to improve the financial condition of every governmental entity in the country, with the aim of improving the provision of public goods and services to all 1,000 million Indians. If and when budgets of all governmental entities become sound, foreign creditors would automatically line up before them with loans to sell, and ambitious development goals can be accomplished. As long as public budgets (and public accounts) remain in an outrageous shambles, nothing can be in fact achieved and only propaganda, corruption and paper-money creation results instead. Whatever economic growth does occur is due to new enterprise and normal technological progress, and is mostly despite and not because of New Delhi’s bureaucrats (see “The Dream Team: A Critique”, The Statesman 6-8 January 2006).  The first aspect of the new Indian foreign policy has been for Government to become wholly ingratiating towards any and all “First World” members visiting India who may deign to consider any kind of collaboration whatsoever. The long line of foreign businessmen and heads of government having photo-ops with the Indian PM began with Vajpayee and has continued with Manmohan, especially when there is a large weapons’ or commercial aircraft or other purchase to be signed. The flip-side has been ministerial and especially Prime Ministerial trips abroad ~ from Vajpayee’s to a Singapore golf-cart immediately after commiserating Gujarat, to Manmohan receiving foreign honorary doctorates while still holding public office.  Subservience to foreign business interests in the name of economic policy extends very easily to Indian naval, military or diplomatic assets being used to provide policing or support services for the great powers as and when they may ask for it. Hence, Indian naval forces may be asked by the Americans to help fight pirates in the Indian Ocean, or escort this vessel or that, or India may be asked to provide refuelling or base facilities, or India may be requested to vote against Iran, Venezuela or whomever here or there. But there would be absolutely no question of India’s role in international politics being anything greater than that of a subaltern or comprador whose response must be an instant “Ji, Huzoor”. The official backing of the Tharoor candidacy was as futile and ridiculous as the quest for UN veto-power or the willingness to attend G-8 summits as an observer. While subservience towards the First World’s business and military interests is the “kiss up” aspect of the new foreign policy, an aggressive jingoism towards others is the “kick down” aspect….”

Dr Singh’s aide at one point challenged his friendly interviewer  suggesting the very need for “fiscal stimulus” could hardly be questioned as if such a thing was beyond his imagination.  And again, I am afraid, I may have been quite alone  in December 2008 in lambasting as counter-productive all this purported “fiscal stimulus”. Just another colossal, indeed perverse, waste of public resources driven by organised business lobbies in their own interests, since in fact no one — not Dr Singh nor any of his aides, acolytes or flatterers, foreign or domestic, or anyone else anywhere — has any empirical or theoretical models of any kind depicting the phase, period or amplitude of any possible business-cycle that India’s economy may be on.  Since none of them has any idea whatsoever of what the amplitude or frequency is of any such purported business cycle, they are as likely to have caused a pro-cyclical exacerbation of the amplitude as any sort of counter-cyclical dampening! (Viz., Leibniz ‘s principle of insufficient reason.)

How to see what is happening in Indian macroeconomic policy in the simplest comparative static terms is this: both the IS and LM curves are being pushed outwards drastically based on a deliberately erroneous assumption that there is  or might develop mass involuntary unemployment of the sort Maynard Keynes once described in 1936.  The overall impact on nominal interest-rates is indeterminate; the process of inflationary deficit-finance with an inconvertible currency that the Government has indulged in for half a century merely continues, further pushing us towards a potential hyperinflation.

The Bourbon regime swept away by the French Revolution that Bastille Day celebrates were said to have “learnt nothing and forgotten nothing”.   I am afraid the macroeconomic illogic often found among Government economists, private commentators and business lobbyists in India today suggests to me nothing less than that they have  either learnt nothing or forgotten everything from their economics classes decades ago! We in India may need our own storming of the Bastille to sweep away the perverse thoughts and power structures of the post-1947 Dilli Raj.

Subroto Roy
Kolkata

Schoolboys exchanging fisticuffs in a school playground or elderly men battling over power and policy? Why did Manmohan Singh and LK Advani apologize to one another? Is Indian politics essentially collusive, not competitive, aiming only to preserve and promote the post-1947 Dilli Raj at the expense of the whole of India? We seem to have no Churchillian repartee (except perhaps from Bihar occasionally)

Yesterday the PM is reported to have been asked by someone travelling on his aeroplane from Moscow “whether he had forgiven Advani for calling him a ‘weak Prime Minister’”.

The question was absurd, almost ridiculous, typical of our docile ingratiating rather juvenile English-language press and media, as if any issue of forgiveness arises at all about what one politician says during an election campaign about another politician’s performance in office.

Dr Manmohan Singh’s answer was surprising too: “I was compelled to reply to what Advani said…On May 16 when (Advani) telephoned me, he told me that he was hurt by some of my statements. He said he was hurt and regretted his statements… I apologised to him if I have hurt him. I am looking forward to a close relationship with the Leader of the Opposition.”

So LK Advani appears to have apologised to Manmohan Singh and Manmohan Singh to LK Advani for what they said about each other during the recent general election campaign! What is going on? Were they schoolboys exchanging fisticuffs in a school playground or elderly men battling over power and policy in modern Indian politics?

What would we have done if there was a Churchill in Indian politics today – hurling sarcastic insults at domestic opponents and foreign leaders while guiding a nation on its right course during turbulent times?

Churchill once famously said his parents had not shown him “The Boneless Wonder” in PT Barnum’s circus because it was too horrible a sight but now he had finally seen such a “Boneless Wonder” in his opponent on the Treasury Benches, namely, Ramsay MacDonald. Of the same opponent he said later “He has the gift of compressing the largest number of words into the smallest amount of thought”.

When accused of being drunk by a woman MP he replied “And you are very ugly, but tomorrow I’ll be sober”. Today’s politically correct world would scream at far less. Field Marshall Montgomery told Churchill, “I neither drink nor smoke and am 100% fit,” to which Churchill replied, “I drink and smoke and I am 200% fit”. That too would be politically incorrect today.

Churchill described Prime Minister Clement Attlee as “a modest man with much to be modest about”; also about Attlee: “If any grub is fed on Royal Jelly it turns into a Queen Bee”. Yet Attlee had enough dignity and self-knowledge and self-confidence to brush it all off and instead respect and praise him. In the 1954 volume Winston Spencer Churchill Servant of Crown and Commonwealth Attlee added his own tribute to his great opponent: “I recall…the period when he was at odds with his own party and took a seat on the Bench below the Gangway on the Government side. Here he was well placed to fire on both parties. I remember describing him as a heavily armed tank cruising in No Man’s Land. Very impressive were the speeches he delivered as the international horizon grew darker. He became very unpopular with the predominant group in his own party, but he never minded fighting a lone battle.”

Stanley Baldwin, who as PM first appointed Churchill as Chancellor of the Exchequer, once said “There comes Winston with his hundred horsepower mind”. Yet Churchill was to later say harshly “I wish Stanley Baldwin no ill, but it would have been much better had he never lived.”

Of Lenin, Churchill said, he was “transported in a sealed truck like a plague bacillus from Switzerland into Russia”. Of Molotov: “I have never seen a human being who more perfectly represented the modern concept of a robot.” Of Hitler, “If [he] invaded hell I would at least make a favourable reference to the devil in the House of Commons”. Of De Gaulle, “He was a man without a country yet he acted as if he was head of state”.” Of John Foster Dulles, “[He] is the only bull who carries his china shop with him”. Of Stafford Cripps, British Ambassador to the USSR, “…a lunatic in a country of lunatics”; and also “There but for the Grace of God, goes God”.

Decades later, that great neo-Churchillian Margaret Thatcher was on the receiving end of a vast amount of sarcasm. “President Mitterrand once famously remarked that Thatcher had ‘the eyes of Caligula and the lips of Marilyn Monroe’. Rather less flatteringly, Dennis Healey described her as Attila the Hen. She probably took both descriptions as compliments.” (Malcolm Rifkind in Margaret Thatcher’s Revolution: How it Happened and What it Meant edited by Subroto Roy and John Clarke, 2005).

Politics is, and should be, grown up stuff because it deals with human lives and national destinies, and really, if you can’t take the heat please do not enter the kitchen. The slight Churchillian sarcasm that does arise within modern Indian politics comes very occasionally from Bihar but nowhere else, e.g. about the inevitability of aloo in samosas and of bhaloos in the jungle but no longer of Laloo being in the seat of power. In general, everyone seems frightfully sombre and self-important though may be in fact short of self-knowledge and hence self-confidence.

What had Manmohan Singh said about LK Advani that he felt he had to apologise for? That Advani had no substantial political achievement to his credit and did not deserve to be India’s PM. Manmohan was not alone in making the charge – Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi and numerous other spokesmen and representatives of their party said the same. Has Manmohan’s apology to Advani been one on behalf of the whole Congress Party itself?

Was Advani’s apology to Manmohan one on behalf of the whole BJP too?

What had the BJP charged Manmohan with that Advani felt he had to apologise for?  Being a “weak PM”.

Hmmm. Frankly, thinking about it, it is hard to count who has not been weak as a PM in India’s modern history.

Certainly Vallabhai Patel as a kind of co-PM was decisive and far from weak back in 1947-48.

Lal Bahadur Shastri was not weak when he told Pakistan that a Pakistani attack on Kashmir would result in an Indian attack on Pakistan.

Indira Gandhi was not weak when she resisted the Yahya Khan-Tikka Khan tyranny against Bangladesh.

Had he not been assassinated, Rajiv Gandhi in a second term would have been decisive and not weak in facing up to and tackling the powerful lobbies and special interest groups that have crippled our domestic economic policy for decades.

But the number of such examples may be counted by hand.  Perhaps VP Singh might count, riding in an open jeep to Amritsar, as might AB Vajpayee’s Pokhran II and travelling on a bus to Lahore. In general, the BJP’s charge that Manmohan was “weak” may have constructively led to serious discussion in the country about the whole nature of the Prime Ministership in modern India, which means raising a whole gamut of issues about Indian governance – about India being the softest of “soft states”, with the softest of “soft government budget constraints” (i.e., endless deficit finance and paper money creation) etc.

Instead, what we have had thus far is apologies being exchanged for no real political reason between the leaderships of the Government and the Opposition. If two or three sellers come to implicitly carve up a market between themselves they are said by economic theory to be colluding rather than being in competition. Indian politics may be revealing such implicit collusive behaviour. The goal of this political oligopoly would seem to be to preserve and promote the status quo of the post-1947 Dilli Raj with its special hereditary nomenclatura, at the expense of anonymous diffused teeming India.

Subroto Roy

Postscript July 15 2009: Churchill’s mature opinion of Baldwin was one of the fullest praise at the 20 May 1950 unveiling of a memorial to him.  See his In the Balance, edited by Randolph S Churchill, 1951, p. 281

Parliament is supposed to control the Government, not be bullied or intimidated by it: Will Rahul Gandhi be able to lead the Backbenches in the 15th Lok Sabha?

Any Lok Sabha MP who neither sits with the Opposition nor is a sworn-in member of the Government is a Backbench MP of the Government party or its coalition.

Shrimati Sonia Gandhi is the most prominent of such Backbench MPs in the 15th Lok Sabha, just as she was of the 14th Lok Sabha, and has chosen to be in a most peculiar position from the point of view of parliamentary law. As the leader of the largest parliamentary party, she could have been not merely a member of the Government but its Prime Minister. She has in fact had a decisive role in determining the composition of the Manmohan Government as well as its policies. She in fact sits on the Frontbenches in the Lok Sabha along with the Manmohan Government. But she is not a member of the Government and is, formally speaking, a Backbench MP who is choosing to sit in the Frontbenches.

(Dr Manmohan Singh himself, not being a member of the Lok Sabha, may, formally speaking, sit or speak from among the Frontbenches of his own Government only by invitation of the Lok Sabha Speaker as a courtesy – such would have been the cardinal reason why Alec Douglas-Home resigned from being Lord Home and instead stood for a House of Commons seat when he was appointed British Prime Minister.)

Sonia Gandhi’s son, Mr Rahul Gandhi, is also a Backbench MP. From all accounts, including that of Dr Singh himself, he could have been a member of Dr Singh’s Government but has specifically chosen not to be. He has appeared to have had some much lesser role than Sonia Gandhi in determining the composition of the Government and its policies but he is not a member of it. He is, formally speaking, a Backbench MP, indeed the most prominent to actually sit in the Backbenches, as he had done in the 14th Lok Sabha, which, it is to be hoped, he does in the 15th Lok Sabha too.

Now Rahul Gandhi, Sonia Gandhi and their 541 other fellow 15th Lok Sabha MPs were declared winners by May 16 2009 having won the Indian people’s vote.

(Incidentally, I predicted the outcome here two hours before polls closed on May 13 – how I did so is simply by having done the necessary work of determining that some 103 million people had voted for Congress in 2004 against some 86 million for the BJP; in my assessment Congress had done more than enough by way of political rhetoric and political reality to maintain if not extend that difference in 2009, i.e., the BJP had not done nearly enough to even begin to get enough of a net drift in its favour. I expect when the data are out it shall be seen that the margin of the raw vote between them has been much enlarged from 2004.)

As I have pointed out here over the last fortnight, there was no legal or logical reason why the  whole 15th Lok Sabha could not have been sworn in latest by May 18 2009.

Instead, Dr Manmohan Singh on May 18 held a purported “Cabinet” meeting of the defunct 14th Lok Sabha – an institution that had been automatically dissolved when Elections had been first announced! The Government then went about forming itself over two weeks despite the 15th Lok Sabha, on whose confidence it depended for its political legitimacy, not having been allowed to meet. Everyone – the Congress Party’s Supreme Court advocates, the Lok Sabha Secretariat, the Election Commission, Rashtrapati Bhavan too –  seems to have gotten it awfully wrong by placing the cart before the horse.

In our system it is Parliament that is sovereign, not the Executive Government. In fact the Executive is accountable to Parliament, specifically the Lok Sabha, and is supposed to be guided by it as well as hold its confidence at all times.

What has happened instead this time is that Government ministers have been busy taking oaths and entering their offices and making policy-decisons days before they have taken their oaths and their seats as Lok Sabha MPs!  The Government has thus started off by diminishing Parliament’s sovereignty and this should not be allowed to happen again.

(Of course why it took place is because of the peculiarity of the victory relative to our experience in recent decades – nobody could remember parliamentary traditions from Nehru’s time in the 1950s.  Even so, someone, e.g. the former Speaker, should have known and insisted upon explaining the relevant aspect of parliamentary law and hence avoided this breach.)

A central question now is whether a Government which has such a large majority, and which is led by someone in and has numerous ministers from the Rajya Sabha, is going to be adequately controlled and feel itself accountable to the Lok Sabha.

Neither of the Lok Sabha’s most prominent Backbenchers, Sonia Gandhi and Rahul Gandhi, have thus far distinguished themselves as Parliamentarians on the floor of the Lok Sabha. In the 14th Lok Sabha, Sonia Gandhi, sitting in the Frontbenches, exercised the  enormous control that she did over the Government not on the floor of the House itself but  from outside it.

It would be best of all if she chose in the 15th Lok Sabha to actually physically sit in the Congress’s Backbenches because that would ensure best that the Government Party’s ministers in the Frontbenches will keep having to seek to be accountable to the  Backbenches!

But this seems unlikely to happen in view of the fact she herself seems to have personally influenced the choice of a Speaker for the 15th Lok Sabha and it may be instead expected that she continues to sit on the Frontbenches with the Government without being a member of it.

That leaves Rahul Gandhi. If he too comes to be persuaded by the sycophants to sit on the Frontbenches with the Government, that will not be a healthy sign.

On the other hand, if he continues to sit on the Backbenches, he may be able to have a salubrious influence on the 15th Lok Sabha fulfilling its responsibility of seeking to seriously control and hold accountable the Executive Government,  and not be bullied or intimidated by it. His paternal grandfather, Feroze Gandhi, after all, may have been India’s most eminent and effective Backbench MP yet.

Subroto Roy, Kolkata

Eleven days and counting after the 15th Lok Sabha was elected and still no Parliament of India! (But we do have 79 Ministers — might that be a world record?)

A lawyer friend tells me she thinks it a “technicality” that there is no Lok Sabha or Parliament in India today despite eleven long days and nights having passed since the 15th Lok Sabha came to be elected by the people of India.  “At least we did not get Advani and Modi to rule”, is how she sought to justify the current circumstance.   I am afraid I think she has produced a non sequitur, and also forgotten the constitutional law she would have read as a student.

The best argument that I think the Government of India shall be able to give justifying their legal error in not having the 15th Lok Sabha up and running yet 11 days after India’s people have spoken would run something like this:

(1) The President of India invites a Council of Ministers led by a PM to form the government and has done so.

(2) The President must be satisfied that the PM commands a majority in the Lok Sabha, and the President has been satisfied by the 322  “letters of support” that the PM produced.

(3) The Government of the day calls parliamentary sessions and does so at its discretion, and the Government of the day headed by this PM has announced when it shall call the 15th Lok Sabha which will be in a few days yet.

Any such argument, I am afraid, would be specious because it simply puts the cart before the horse.

Parliament is sovereign in India, to repeat what I have said several times before.

Parliament is sovereign in India — not even the President who is the symbol of that sovereignty.  We do not follow the British quite exactly in this because we are a republic and not a monarchy.  In Britain sovereignty rests with “The King in Parliament”.  With us, Parliament is sovereign and the President is the symbol of that sovereignty.  In all matters of state, our President must act in a manner that Parliament and parliamentary law says.

Parliament is sovereign in India — not the Executive Government, certainly not its largest political party or its leader.

Parliament is sovereign in India because the people of India have chosen it to be so within the Constitution of India.

Parliament is sovereign in India and the people of India have elected the 15th Lok Sabha which has still not been allowed to meet eleven days later.

To the contrary, as noted days ago, the purported “Cabinet” of the 14th Lok Sabha, a dead institution, met on May 18 2009, some 48 hours after the 15th Lok Sabha had already been declared!   The 14th Lok Sabha in fact stood automatically dissolved in law when General Elections came to be announced.

Is all this merely a “technicality” as my friend believes?  I think not.

Executive Government in India derives its political legitimacy from being elected  by Parliament,  i.e., from holding the confidence of Parliament, and that means the Lok Sabha.

The Government of the day might  for sake of convenience have a prerogative of calling sessions of the 15th Lok Sabha once it has been constituted but the Government of the day cannot logically constitute a Lok Sabha after a General Election because it itself receives legitimacy from such a Lok Sabha.

If the 15th Lok Sabha has not met, confidence in any Executive has yet to be recorded, and hence any such Government has yet to receive legitimacy.

Do “322 letters of support” suffice?  Hardly.  They are signed after all by persons who have yet to take their seats in the Lok Sabha!  (Let us leave aside the fact that the PM, not being a member of the Lok Sabha, is in this case unable to be one of those 322 himself!)

Yet we have 79 “Ministers” of this new “Government” holding press-conferences and giving out free-bees and favours etc already.  As I have said before, Ambedkar, Nehru and others of their generation, plus Indira and Rajiv too, would all have been appalled.

Because the incompetence of the fascists and communists in the Opposition may continue to  be expected, it will be up to ordinary citizens and voters of India to point out such  simple truths whenever the Emperor is found to be naked.  (Our docile juvenile ingratiating media may well remain mostly hopeless.)

Subroto Roy

Why does India not have a Parliament ten days after the 15th Lok Sabha was elected? Nehru and Rajiv would both have been appalled

There are at least three Supreme Court lawyers, all highly voluble, among the higher echelons of Congress Party politicians; it is surprising that not one of them has been able to get the top Party leadership of Sonia Gandhi and Manmohan Singh to see the apparent breach of normal constitutional law in Parliament not having met more than 10 days after it was elected.

A Government has been formed, Ministers have entered their offices and have been holding press-conferences and taking executive decisions,  wannabe-Ministers continue to be wrangling night-and-day for the plums of office — BUT THERE IS NO PARLIAMENT!

Today is the death-anniversary of Jawaharlal Nehru and last week was the death anniversary of  Rajiv Gandhi.

Nehru, whatever his faults and infirmities, was an outstanding parliamentarian and a believer in the Westminster model in particular.  He was intimately familiar with its  unpoken customs and unwritten laws.   He would have been completely appalled by the situation today where luminaries of the party that goes by the  same name as the one he had led are paying obeisance to his memory 45 years after his death but have failed to see the absurdity in having a Government in office with no new Parliament ten days after a month-long General Election was over!  (Incidentally, had he not left explicit instructions against any hero-worship  taking place of himself too?)

Rajiv knew his grandfather and had acquired a sense of noblesse oblige from him.  He too would have been appalled that the procedural business of government  had been simply  procrastinated over like this.

It surprises me that Dr Manmohan Singh, having been a post-graduate of Cambridge, having earned a doctorate from Oxford, and more recently having been awarded honorary doctorates from both Ancient Universities, should seem so unaware of the elements of the Westminster model of  constitutional jurisprudence which guides our polity too.

It is too late now and the mistakes have been made.   I hope his  new Government will  come to realise at some point and then keep in mind that our Executive receives political legitimacy from Parliament, not vice versa.   An Executive can hardly be legitimately in office until the  Parliament that is supposed to elect it has been sworn in.

As for our putative Opposition in the Parliament-yet-to-meet, it seems to have drawn a blank too, and eo ipso revealed its own constitutional backwardness and lethargy.

Subroto Roy

Parliament’s sovereignty has been diminished by the Executive: A record for future generations to know (2009)

Sad to say, Parliament’s sovereignty has been diminished, indeed usurped, by the new Executive Government.

Here is a brief record for future generations to know.

India’s people completed their voting in the 15th General Elections on Wednesday May 13 2009.

The results of how they had spoken, what was their will, were known and declared by Saturday May 16 2009.

There was no legal or logical reason why the 543 members of the 15th Lok Sabha could not have been sworn in as new MPs by the close-of-business on Monday May 18 at the latest.

On Tuesday May 19 the 15th Lok Sabha could have and should have met to elect itself a pro tem or even a permanent Speaker.

The Speaker would have divided the new House into its Government Party and its Opposition.

There would have been a vote of confidence on the floor of the House, which in the circumstances would have been in favour of the Government Party.

Observing this to have taken place, the Hon’ble President of India as the Head of State would have sent for the leader of the Government Party and invited her to form the new Government.

In this particular case, the leader of the largest political party, namely Sonia Gandhi, would have been accompanied perhaps by the Leader of the Lok Sabha, Pranab Mukherjee, as well as her personal nominee for the position of PM, namely, Manmohan Singh.

Sonia Gandhi would have respectfully declined the invitation of the President to be the new Prime Minister, and she would have also explained that she wanted Manmohan Singh to have the position instead.

The President would have said “Very well, Dr Singh, can you please form the Government?”

He would have said, “Yes Madame President it shall be a privilege and an honour to do so”.

The President would have added, “Thank you, and I notice you are not a member of the Lok Sabha at the moment but I am sure you are taking steps towards becoming one.”

End of visit.

Manmohan Singh would have been sworn in as PM and would have gone about adding Ministers at a measured pace.   Later, he would have resigned his Rajya Sabha seat and sought election to the Lok Sabha on the parliamentary precedent set by Alec Douglas-Home.

What has happened instead?

On May 18 2009, instead of 543 members of the 15th Lok Sabha taking their oaths as required by parliamentary law and custom, Dr Singh held a purported “Cabinet”  meeting of the 14th Lok Sabha — a long-since dead institution!

Some of the persons attending this  meeting as purported “Cabinet ministers” had even lost their seats in the elections decided a few days earlier and so had absolutely zero democratically legitimate status left. All these persons then submitted their purported resignations which Dr Singh carried to the President, stating his Government had resigned. The President then appointed him a caretaker PM and he, along with Sonia Gandhi, then went about “staking claim” to form the next Government — turning up at the President’s again with “letters of support” signed by some 322 persons  who were MP-elects but were yet to become MPs formally by not having been sworn in.

The President appeared satisfied the party Sonia Gandhi and Manmohan Singh belonged to would command a majority in prospect in the Lok Sabha and invited him to be PM.   Some major public wrangling then took place with at least one of his allies about cabinet berths — and that is the situation as of the present moment except that Dr Singh and several others have been sworn in as the Council of Ministers even though the  new 15th Lok Sabha of 543 members has still not convened!  It has been all rather sloppy and hardly uplifting.

Parliament is supposed to be sovereign in India.

Not the Executive Government or the largest political party or its leader.

The sovereignty of Parliament required Sonia Gandhi and Dr Singh to have realised

first, that the 14th Lok Sabha stood automatically dissolved when elections were announced;

secondly, that the 15th Lok Sabha could have and should have been sworn in by Monday May 18;

thirdly, that there should have been a vote of confidence in the Lok Sabha immediately which would have gone in favour of the Government Party;

fourthly, that only then should the Executive Government have been sought to be formed;

and of course fifthly, that if that Executive Government was to be led by someone who happened to be a member of the Rajya Sabha and not the Lok Sabha, parliamenary law and custom required him to follow the Douglas-Home precedent of resigning from the former and seeking election to the latter at the earliest opportunity.

Let future generations know that as of today, May 25, the 543 persons whom the people of India voted to constitute the 15th Lok Sabha still remain in limbo without having been sworn in though we already have an Executive Government appointed!

The sovereignty of Parliament, specifically that of the Lok Sabha, has come to be diminished, indeed usurped, by the Executive.   It is the Executive that receives its political legitimacy from Parliament, not vice versa.  Nehru and his generation knew all this intimately well and would have been appalled at where we in the present have been taking it.

Subroto Roy

May we have reviews & reforms of protocols & practices to be followed at Rashtrapati Bhavan and elsewhere? (2009)

The Hon’ble President of India has invited you to join the Council of Ministers and has invited you to Rashtrapati Bhavan to be sworn in by an oath she shall administer. You are awaiting your name to be called. Your name is called and what do you do? You stand up and do a namaste to the PM and then walk a bit to do another namaste to Sonia Gandhi sitting in the audience opposite the President, and then you move towards the microphone ignoring or turning your back on the President herself and then you suddenly remember where you are and realize it is the President who has invited you and shall be administering your oath so you turn around and do a small namaste to her smiling apologetically for having made her an afterthought, and then you go about taking your oath, and then you perhaps do another namaste or two to the President more deeply because you want to make up for having forgotten her last time and finally you feel so happy and pleased with yourself you do another big namaste to Sonia Gandhi in the audience and finally get back to your seat! Phew!

Such was how several of Dr Singh’s new and senior-most cabinet members behaved yesterday at their swearing-in. Dr Singh himself walked straight to the President and did a very gracious bow to her before taking his oath, though on the way back he may have started the ball rolling by doing an exceptionally glad namaste to Sonia Gandhi sitting in the audience. AK Antony was the first and the most senior on the list who most blatantly ignored the President herself initially and turned his back on her momentarily before correcting himself, though he did not fail to do an initial namaste to Shrimati Gandhi. By contrast, Sharad Pawar may have got the whole thing right by walking straight to the President and doing a proper namaste, followed by his oath fluently spoken in Hindi followed by a small acknowledgment of the audience as a whole before returning to his seat.

But in half a dozen cases it all seemed a little sloppy, and even though the President seemed game and sportsmanlike about it, a discourtesy was noticeable to her high office as Head of State which needs to be apologized for and corrected. After all, these were the senior-most ministers, what might lesser ministers do next week?

In fact, a strong case might exist for a rational review nationwide of all such practices and protocols in Delhi and the State capitals, some of which have become so ossified from ancient times that they look bizarre today. Why do we have to have such an elaborate ceremony at all for a mere swearing in, which gets repeated too in each of the states with the Governors and State Governments? Yes perhaps the Head of State did administer the oath to the PM back in 1947 but it is not really necessary for the Head of State to do so now – it could be, for example, the Chief Justice of India who does so, at least to the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister could then himself/herself administer the oath to everyone else in his/her Cabinet, while someone, even the Cabinet Secretary perhaps, could administer the oath to everyone else. The oath itself is what is important, not so much the status of the person administering it. There need not be any such elaborate ceremony at all in Rashtrapati Bhavan that risks the dignity of the President like this and spends everyone’s time.

(And did anyone else notice the private sector lobbyists and public sector fixers seated in the audience? Precisely what were they doing there? Is this just another New Delhi social occasion for people to put on a show of showing their presence?)

For that matter, why was the National Anthem apparently played twice not by any live or noticeable orchestra or band but as a rather grainy recording? It is all a bit depressing when it should have been uplifting. Imagine instead some splendid soprano or tenor leading the singing of the Anthem in that splendid Hall accompanied by a first-class band.

I have long thought we need a National Commission to review all such matters and much more.

It would need to start with the 15th August Red Fort speech by the PM. 15th August was a date chosen by Mountbatten and its auspiciousness was diminished by all the bloodshed that flowed with it. It has become quite unseemly in recent decades to hear our PMs read out party-slogans or government propaganda statements from behind a bullet-proof barrier there. If I was a perceptive school-child being compelled to wait for hours in front of the Red Fort on a hot and muggy August morning to hear such dreary stuff, I might be justifiably upset, and of course many schoolchildren faint every year from exhaustion at being forced to do such things across the country. My own recommendation would be that August 15 be renamed Martyrs’ Day and be a solemn holiday marked only by a long five-minute nationwide silence, say at noon, in memory of all those who have died for India to be what it is today.

Then there is 26 January, going all the way to the “Beating of the Retreat”. Why on earth do we feel a need in this modern age to have such a display in the capital city once a year? Marching bands and parades and floats and fireworks can be great fun for all citizens but they can be and should be spread year-round all across the country’s many cities and towns, and the occasion need not be made a pompous one only in Delhi once a year (with some pale imitations in the State capitals). Republic Day can be a happy holiday for everyone in January when the weather is splendid around the country, with fireworks and fun for everyone, not merely New Delhi’s already delusional Ruling Class.

Then there is the oh-so-common ceremony all over the country from Parliament downwards of standing before the portrait or statue of someone long dead and throwing flowers at it along with a namaste (or in the case of communists, a clenched-fist Black Panther salute). Have we so lost our secular ethos that we do not realize that, for example, a Muslim or Jewish believer might find throwing flowers and doing namaste to a portrait something awkward to do? Both Ariel Sharon and Pervez Musharraf seemed to feel awkward when we took them to the Mahatma Gandhi memorial and said right, now, this is what we expect you to do, throw flowers and walk around it in this manner… it is not enough for you as a visiting dignitary to merely place a bouquet… ! We need to chill out a bit about all this ritualism.

And so it goes. To their considerable credit, neither Nehru nor Indira or Rajiv stood on ceremony much, and the same seems to apply to Sonia Gandhi and her children. The time may be opportune for all such matters to be reviewed calmly and soberly by a National Commission– in the meantime, the PM needs to send a small apology to the President for any unintended discourtesy from his Council of Ministers that may have occurred yesterday or at least a promise that it will not get repeated.

Subroto Roy, Kolkata

Postscript: Then there is the matter of Presidents, Prime Ministers, Governors, Chief Ministers et al taking salutes from the uniformed armed forces  or the paramilitary — if you are not yourself a commissioned officer or have never been one, do not respond to a salute from uniformed men and women by saluting or trying to salute them back yourself.  What is required is instead to perhaps stand to attention when they salute you, and perhaps bow your head slightly to acknowledge their salute.   Salutes are exchanged only within the uniformed services.  We instead have civilian leaders seeming to greatly enjoying trying to return salutes themselves….

Why has the Sonia Congress done something that the Congress under Nehru-Indira-Rajiv would not have done, namely, exaggerate the power of the Rajya Sabha and diminish the power of the Lok Sabha?

We in India did not invent the idea of Parliament, the British did.  Even the British did not invent the idea of a “Premier Ministre”, the French did that, though the British came to develop its meaning most.  Because these are not our own inventions, when something unusual happens in contemporary India to political entities and offices known as “Parliament”, “Prime Minister” etc, contrast and comparison is inevitable with standards and practices that have prevailed around the world in other parliamentary democracies.

Indeed we in India did not even fully invent the idea of our own Parliament though the national struggle led by the original Indian National Congress caused it to come to be invented.  The Lok Sabha is the outcome of a long and distinguished constitutional and political history from the Morley-Minto reforms a century ago to the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms and Government of India Act of 1919 to the Government of India Act of 1935 and the first general elections of British India in 1937 (when Jawaharlal Nehru briefly became PM for the first time) and in due course the 1946 Constituent Assembly.   Out of all this emerged the 1950 Constitution of India, drafted by that brilliant jurist BR Ambedkar as well as other sober intelligent well-educated and dedicated men and women of his time, and thence arose our first Lok Sabha following the 1951 General Elections.

About the Lok Sabha’s duties, I said in my March 30 2006 article “Logic of Democracy” in The Statesman

“What are Lok Sabha Members and State MLAs legitimately required to be doing in caring for their constituents? First of all, as a body as a whole, they need to elect the Government, i.e. the Executive Branch, and to hold it accountable in Parliament or Assembly. For example, the Comptroller and Auditor General submits his reports directly to the House, and it is the duty of individual legislators to put these to good use in controlling the Government’s waste, fraud or abuse of public resources.   Secondly, MPs and MLAs are obviously supposed to literally represent their individual constituencies in the House, i.e. to bring the Government and the House’s attention to specific problems or contingencies affecting their constituents as a whole, and call for the help, funds and sympathy of the whole community on their behalf.  Thirdly, MPs and MLAs are supposed to respond to pleas and petitions of individual constituents, who may need the influence associated with the dignity of their office to get things rightly done. For example, an impoverished orphan lad once needed surgery to remove a brain tumour; a family helping him was promised the free services of a top brain surgeon if a hospital bed and operating theatre could be arranged. It was only by turning to the local MLA that the family were able to get such arrangements made, and the lad had his tumour taken out at a public hospital. MPs and MLAs are supposed to vote for and create public goods and services, and to use their moral suasion to see that existing public services actually do get to reach the public.”

What about the Rajya Sabha?  I said in the same article:

“Rajya Sabha Members are a different species altogether. Most if not all State Legislative Councils have been abolished, and sadly the present nature of the Rajya Sabha causes similar doubts to arise about its utility. The very idea of a Rajya Sabha was first mooted in embryo form in an 1888 book A History of the Native States of India, Vol I. Gwalior, whose author also advocated popular constitutions for the “Indian India” of the “Native States” since “where there are no popular constitutions, the personal character of the ruler becomes a most important factor in the government… evils are inherent in every government where autocracy is not tempered by a free constitution.”  When Victoria was declared India’s “Empress” in 1877, a “Council of the Empire” was mooted but had remained a non-starter even until the 1887 Jubilee. An “Imperial Council” was now designed of the so-called “Native Princes”, which came to evolve into the “Chamber of Princes” which became the “Council of the States” and the Rajya Sabha.  It was patterned mostly on the British and not the American upper house except in being not liable to dissolution, and compelling periodic retirement of a third of members. The American upper house is an equal if not the senior partner of the lower house. Our Rajya Sabha follows the British upper house in being a chamber which is duty-bound to oversee any exuberance in the Lok Sabha but which must ultimately yield to it if there is any dispute.  Parliament in India’s democracy effectively means the Lok Sabha — where every member has contested and won a direct vote in his/her constituency. The British upper house used to have an aristocratic hereditary component which Tony Blair’s New Labour Government has now removed, so it has now been becoming more like what the Rajya Sabha was supposed to have been like.”

The Canadian upper house is similar to ours in intent: a place for “sober second thought” intended to curb the “democratic excesses” of the lower house.   In the Canadian, British, Australian, Irish and our own cases, the Prime Minister, as the chief executive of the lower house has immense indirect power over the upper house, whether in appointing members or even, in the Australian case, dissolving the entire upper house if he/she wishes.

Now yesterday apparently Shrimati Sonia Gandhi, as the duly elected leader of the largest political party in the 15th Lok Sabha, accompanied by Dr Manmohan Singh, as her party’s choice for the position of Prime Minister, went to see the President of India where the Hon’ble President apparently appointed Dr Singh to be the Prime Minister of India – meaning the Prime Minister of the 15th Lok Sabha, except that Dr Singh is not a member of the Lok Sabha and apparently has had no intent of becoming one.

In 2004 Shrimati Gandhi had declined to accept an invitation to become PM and instead effectively recommended Dr Singh to be PM despite his not being a member of the Lok Sabha nor intending to be so.   This exploited a constitutional loophole to the extent that the drafters of our 1950 Constitution happened not to have explicitly stated that the PM must be from the Lok Sabha.  But the reason the founders of our democratic polity such as BR Ambedkar and Jawaharlal Nehru did not specify that the PM must be from the Lok Sabha was quite simply that it was a matter of complete obviousness to them and to their entire generation that this must be so — it would have been  appalling to them and something beyond their wildest imagination that a later generation, namely our own, would exploit such a loophole and allow a PM to be appointed who is not a member of the Lok Sabha and intends not to be so.

Ambedkar, Nehru and all others of their time knew fully well that the history and intended purpose of the Lok Sabha was completely different from the history and intended purpose of the Rajya Sabha.  They knew too fully well that Lord Curzon had been explicitly denied the leadership of Britain’s Tory Party in 1922 because that would have made him a potential PM  when he was not prepared to be a member of the House of Commons.  That specific precedent culminated a centuries’-old  democratic trend of  political power flowing from monarchs to lords to commoners, and has governed all parliamentary democracies  worldwide ever since — until Dr Singh’s appointment in 2004.

When such an anomalous situation once arose in Britain, Lord Home resigned his membership of the House of Lords to contest a House of Commons seat as Sir Alec Douglas Home so that he could be PM in a manner consistent with parliamentary law.

Dr Singh instead for five years remained PM of India while not being a member of the Lok Sabha.  Even if reasons and exigencies of State could have been cited for such an anomalous situation during his first term, there was really no such reason for him not to contest the 2009 General Election if he wished to be the Congress Party’s prime ministerial candidate a second time.  Numerous Rajya Sabha members alongside him have contested Lok Sabha seats this time, and several have won.

As of today, Dr Singh is due to be sworn in tomorrow as Prime Minister for a second term while still having no declared intention of resigning from the Rajya Sabha and contesting a Lok Sabha seat instead.   What the present-day Congress has done is elect him the leader of the “Congress Parliamentary Party” and claim that it is in such a capacity that he received the invitation to be Prime Minister of India.   But surely if the question had been asked to the Congress Party under Nehru or Indira or Rajiv: “Can you foresee a circumstance ever in which the PM of India is not a member of the Lok Sabha?” their answer in each case would have been a categorical and resounding  “no”.

So the question does arise why the Congress under Sonia Gandhi has with deliberation allowed such an anomalous situation to develop.  Its effect is to completely distort the trends of relative political power between the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.  On the one hand, the Lok Sabha’s power is deliberately made to diminish as the chief executive of the Government of India shall not be from the Lok Sabha but from “the other place” despite the Lok Sabha having greater political legitimacy by having been directly elected by India’s people.   This sets a precedent that  might  get repeated in India  in the future but which contradicts the worldwide trend in parliamentary democracies over decades and centuries in precisely the opposite direction –  of power flowing in the direction of the people not away from them.   On the other hand, the fact this anomalous idea has been pioneered by the elected leader of the largest political party in the Lok Sabha while her PM is in the Rajya Sabha causes a member of the lower house to have unexpected control over the upper house when the latter is supposed to be something of an independent check on the former!

It all really seems an unnecessary muddle and a jumbling up of normal constitutional law and parliamentary procedure.  The Sonia-Manmohan Government at the outset of its second term should hardly want to be seen by history as having set a poor precedent using brute force.  The situation can be corrected with the utmost ease by following the Alec Douglas Home example, with Dr Singh being given a relatively safe seat to contest as soon as possible, if necessary by some newly elected Congress MP resigning and allowing a bye-election to be called.

Subroto Roy

What’s all this business about political parties “staking a claim” to Government? Can there not be more dignified behaviour towards the President of India?

Press reports today say “With a comfortable majority in the Lok Sabha, UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh will meet President Pratibha Patil to stake claim (sic) to form the new government. This was decided unanimously at a meeting of the leaders of the United Progressive Alliance in which Gandhi was re-elected its Chairperson.” (emphasis added)

“Stake claim”?

“To stake a claim” is  to show that you believe something is yours or to declare that something belongs to you.

Is that what Jawaharlal Nehru did with Dr Rajendra Prasad or Dr Radhakrishnan?  He went and said something like “Now look here Mr President, I would like to stake my claim to be Prime Minister of India now that this here General Election is over and I won”?

Is anyone else at present submitting any competing “claims” to the President?  Of course not.   Is the President unaware of the fact the General Elections are now over, or that she has a solemn duty to perform of inviting the leader of the largest political party in the new Lok Sabha to Rashtrapati Bhavan for an important chat?  Why does it have to be said that someone has to “stake a claim” to be asked to form the Government when the field is open and there is no sign of any other “claimant”?   Besides there has been the rush of political parties shooting off letters to the President declaring their support of Shrimati Gandhi and Dr Singh when they “stake claim” to the Government.  What does the President of India do with such letter-carriers when they turn up at her doorstep uninvited?  Offer each of them a cup of tea and a smile?

It is all hardly sober or uplifting — in fact, it is all rather undignified.

Perhaps a President of India might someday murmur something to the politicians like “Really, why do we need such talk about “staking claims”; I was going to invite you anyway.”

Starting with Procedural Error: Why has the “Cabinet” of the 14th Lok Sabha been meeting today AFTER the results of the Elections to the 15th Lok Sabha have been declared?!

The 14th Lok Sabha stood automatically dissolved when General Elections to the 15th Lok Sabha were first announced.  A fortiori so did its Council of Ministers and its “Cabinet”.

Yet this morning Dr Manmohan Singh has held a purported “Cabinet Meeting” of the 14th Lok Sabha where its “members” (some of whom lost their seats!)  purportedly submitted their “resignations” which he will then convey to the President with a request that the 14th Lok Sabha be dissolved!

Nyet!

The 14th Lok Sabha was dissolved and came to end eo ipso with the calling of the General Elections and any Council of Ministers and Cabinet that continued in existence was necessarily of a caretaker nature.

The 15th Lok Sabha has been elected as soon as the Election Commission has certified its final results.    There can be no legitimate “Cabinet” of the 14th Lok Sabha subsisting alongside the 15th Lok Sabha even for one logical moment.

It is surprising we must begin perhaps with such a simple procedural error.  It suggests there may be more to come.  We must be sorry to see the steady corrosion of parliamentary law and custom.

Subroto Roy

Postscript:   In the interregnum between the dissolution of the 14th  Lok Sabha when General Elections are announced and the  actual  declaration of the results of the 15th, which has in fact taken a month or more, there is no  functioning legislative branch of Government — though I would not disagree that if a national emergency like a war occurred during that period, the President in her wisdom would have a right to recall the 14th Lok Sabha if necessary as a kind of “caretaker” body for the duration of the emergency.

Inviting a new Prime Minister of India to form a Government: Procedure Right and Wrong (updated 2019 since 2009)

2019

Better Procedure:

 

 

So please follow my timetable for : Th 23/5 Results declared Fri 24/5 EC certifies results Sat Sun 25 26/5 Members sworn in Mon 27/5 Speaker pro tem divides House; Prez invites new to form a Gov’t Tue 28/5 Cabinet appointed

Better Procedure for .. Respected 16LS no longer exists as soon as results are certified by … Let 543 members of new be sworn in immediately one by one; let them elect a Speaker pro tem.

Let the Speaker pro tem divide the House between a putative Government & Opposition… Let then invite the leader of the former side to visit him for a chat… better then before please

Gen Chohan: Utopia not possible Prof. We can only dream IMO.

It’s the correct parliamentary logic tho.. Not hard to do… informs of winning candidates; LS informs 543 new members of to turn up pronto and be sworn in; elect a Speaker pro tem, divide the House; invites

Worse Procedure: 

Halla gulla … lists… parades of signatories… you know… Dilliwalla histrionics… 

 

 

2009:

Better Procedure

The Hon’ble President of India invites the leader of the single largest political party in the 15th Lok Sabha to visit Rashtrapati Bhavan.

The leader does so, bringing with her, her own nominee for the Prime Ministership of India as she herself wishes to decline the invitation to be PM.

The President meets the leader alone and extends the invitation.

The invitation is respectfully declined with the recommendation that the Hon’ble President may perhaps consider instead the name of the person nominated by the leader.

The President agrees and extends the invitation to the latter in the presence of the leader.  The latter accepts with thanks.

The President observes that since the PM-elect in this case happens not to be  a member of the Lok Sabha, she hopes that he shall soon become one.

The meeting ends.

Worse Procedure

The leader of the single largest political party in the 15th Lok Sabha publicly announces her nominee for the position of Prime Minister.

The Hon’ble President of India comes to learn of this from the newspapers or television and extends an invitation to the latter.

The latter visits Rashtrapati Bhavan, receives and accepts the President’s invitation to form a Government.

Of related interest:

Parliament’s sovereignty has been diminished by the Executive

Memo to the Hon’ble President of India: It is Sonia Gandhi, not Manmohan Singh, who should be invited to our equivalent of the “Kissing Hands” Ceremony

Starting with Procedural Error: Why has the “Cabinet” of the 14th Lok Sabha been meeting today AFTER the results of the Elections to the 15th Lok Sabha have been declared?!

India’s 2009 General Elections: Provisional Results from the EC as of 1400 hours Indian Standard Time May 16 2009

Const.        PC NAME        Leading/Winning Candidate    Leading Party    Trailing Candidate Name    Trailing Party    Margin of Votes    Result Declared
1    AP    ADILABAD         Rathod Ramesh    Telugu Desam    Kotnak Ramesh    Indian National Congress    115752    NO
2    AP    PEDDAPALLE         Dr.G.Vivekanand    Indian National Congress    Gomasa Srinivas    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    48503    NO
3    AP    KARIMNAGAR         Ponnam Prabhakar    Indian National Congress    Vinod Kumar Boinapally    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    50179    NO
4    AP    NIZAMABAD        Madhu Yaskhi Goud    Indian National Congress    Bigala Ganesh Gupta    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    59007    NO
5    AP    ZAHIRABAD        Syed Yousuf Ali    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    Suresh Kumar Shetkar    Indian National Congress    12423    NO
6    AP    MEDAK        Vijaya Shanthi .M    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    Narendranath .C    Indian National Congress    7513    NO
7    AP    MALKAJGIRI        Sarvey Sathyanarayana    Indian National Congress    Bheemsen.T    Telugu Desam    45684    NO
8    AP    SECUNDRABAD        Anjan Kumar Yadav M    Indian National Congress    Bandaru Dattatreya    Bharatiya Janata Party    143695    NO
9    AP    HYDERABAD        Asaduddin Owaisi    All India Majlis-E-Ittehadul Muslimeen    Zahid Ali Khan    Telugu Desam    74507    NO
10    AP    CHELVELLA        Jaipal Reddy Sudini    Indian National Congress    A.P.Jithender Reddy    Telugu Desam    18032    NO
11    AP    MAHBUBNAGAR        Devarakonda Vittal Rao    Indian National Congress    K. Chandrasekhar Rao    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    4782    NO
12    AP    NAGARKURNOOL        Dr. Manda Jagannath    Indian National Congress    Guvvala Balaraju    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    31833    NO
13    AP    NALGONDA        Gutha Sukender Reddy    Indian National Congress    Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy    Communist Party of India    68461    NO
14    AP    BHONGIR         Komatireddy Raj Gopal Reddy    Indian National Congress    Nomula Narsimhaiah    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    75636    NO
15    AP    WARANGAL        Rajaiah Siricilla    Indian National Congress    Ramagalla Parameshwar    Telangana Rashtra Samithi    97708    NO
16    AP    MAHABUBABAD         P. Balram    Indian National Congress    Kunja Srinivasa Rao    Communist Party of India    67553    NO
17    AP    KHAMMAM         Nama Nageswara Rao    Telugu Desam    Renuka Chowdhury    Indian National Congress    102505    NO
18    AP    ARUKU         Kishore Chandra Suryanarayana Deo Vyricherla    Indian National Congress    Midiyam Babu Rao    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    90318    NO
19    AP    SRIKAKULAM        Killi Krupa Rani    Indian National Congress    Yerrnnaidu Kinjarapu    Telugu Desam    49013    NO
20    AP    VIZIANAGARAM        Jhansi Lakshmi Botcha    Indian National Congress    Appalanaidu Kondapalli    Telugu Desam    41954    NO
21    AP    VISAKHAPATNAM        Daggubati Purandeswari    Indian National Congress    Palla Srinivasa Rao    Praja Rajyam Party    21581    NO
22    AP    ANAKAPALLI        Sabbam Hari    Indian National Congress    Allu Aravind    Praja Rajyam Party    30239    NO
23    AP    KAKINADA        M.M.Pallamraju    Indian National Congress    Chalamalasetty Sunil    Praja Rajyam Party    32934    NO
24    AP    AMALAPURAM         G.V.Harsha Kumar    Indian National Congress    Pothula Prameela Devi    Praja Rajyam Party    30060    NO
25    AP    RAJAHMUNDRY        Aruna Kumar Vundavalli    Indian National Congress    M. Murali Mohan    Telugu Desam    15135    NO
26    AP    NARSAPURAM        Bapiraju Kanumuru    Indian National Congress    Gubbala Tammaiah    Praja Rajyam Party    71888    NO
27    AP    ELURU         Kavuri Sambasiva Rao    Indian National Congress    Maganti Venkateswara Rao(Babu)    Telugu Desam    36019    NO
28    AP    MACHILIPATNAM         Konakalla Narayana Rao    Telugu Desam    Badiga Ramakrishna    Indian National Congress    1866    NO
29    AP    VIJAYAWADA        Lagadapati Raja Gopal    Indian National Congress    Vamsi Mohan Vallabhaneni    Telugu Desam    30685    NO
30    AP    GUNTUR        Rayapati Sambasiva Rao     Indian National Congress    Madala Rajendra    Telugu Desam    18978    NO
31    AP    NARASARAOPET        Balashowry Vallabhaneni    Indian National Congress    Modugula Venugopala Reddy    Telugu Desam    3988    NO
32    AP    BAPATLA         Panabaka Lakshmi    Indian National Congress    Malyadri Sriram    Telugu Desam    43089    NO
33    AP    ONGOLE         Magunta Srinivasulu Reddy    Indian National Congress    Madduluri Malakondaiah Yadav    Telugu Desam    38947    NO
34    AP    NANDYAL        S.P.Y.Reddy    Indian National Congress    Nasyam Mohammed Farook    Telugu Desam    16735    NO
35    AP    KURNOOL        Kotla Jaya Surya Prakash Reddy    Indian National Congress    B.T.Naidu    Telugu Desam    61274    NO
36    AP    ANANTAPUR        Anantha Venkata Rami Reddy    Indian National Congress    Kalava Srinivasulu    Telugu Desam    59410    NO
37    AP    HINDUPUR        Kristappa Nimmala    Telugu Desam    P Khasim Khan    Indian National Congress    13186    NO
38    AP    KADAPA        Y.S. Jagan Mohan Reddy    Indian National Congress    Palem Srikanth Reddy    Telugu Desam    156168    NO
39    AP    NELLORE        Mekapati Rajamohan Reddy    Indian National Congress    Vanteru Venu Gopala Reddy    Telugu Desam    42407    NO
40    AP    TIRUPATI         Chinta Mohan    Indian National Congress    Varla Ramaiah    Telugu Desam    17462    NO
41    AP    RAJAMPET        Annayyagari Sai Prathap    Indian National Congress    Ramesh Kumar Reddy Reddappagari    Telugu Desam    62762    NO
42    AP    CHITTOOR         Naramalli Sivaprasad    Telugu Desam    Thippeswamy M    Indian National Congress    8806    NO
1    AR    ARUNACHAL WEST        Takam Sanjoy    Indian National Congress    Kiren Rijiju    Bharatiya Janata Party    20798    NO
2    AR    ARUNACHAL EAST        Ninong Ering    Indian National Congress    Lowangcha Wanglat    Arunachal Congress    57975    NO
1    AS    KARIMGANJ        Rajesh Mallah    Assam United Democratic Front    Lalit Mohan Suklabaidya    Indian National Congress    37542    NO
2    AS    SILCHAR        Kabindra Purkayastha    Bharatiya Janata Party    Badruddin Ajmal    Assam United Democratic Front    15243    NO
3    AS    AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT        Biren Singh Engti    Indian National Congress    Elwin Teron    Autonomous State Demand Committee    71819    NO
4    AS    DHUBRI        Badruddin Ajmal    Assam United Democratic Front    Anwar Hussain    Indian National Congress    161394    NO
5    AS    KOKRAJHAR        Sansuma Khunggur Bwiswmuthiary    Bodaland Peoples Front    Urkhao Gwra Brahma    Independent    165034    NO
6    AS    BARPETA        Ismail Hussain    Indian National Congress    Bhupen Ray    Asom Gana Parishad    2974    NO
7    AS    GAUHATI        Bijoya Chakravarty    Bharatiya Janata Party    Capt. Robin Bordoloi    Indian National Congress    2092    NO
8    AS    MANGALDOI        Ramen Deka    Bharatiya Janata Party    Madhab Rajbangshi    Indian National Congress    40759    NO
9    AS    TEZPUR        Joseph Toppo    Asom Gana Parishad    Moni Kumar Subba    Indian National Congress    22778    NO
10    AS    NOWGONG        Rajen Gohain    Bharatiya Janata Party    Anil Raja    Indian National Congress    54992    NO
11    AS    KALIABOR        Dip Gogoi    Indian National Congress    Gunin Hazarika    Asom Gana Parishad    115587    NO
12    AS    JORHAT        Bijoy Krishna Handique    Indian National Congress    Kamakhya Tasa    Bharatiya Janata Party    63749    NO
13    AS    DIBRUGARH        Sima Ghosh    Independent    Lakhi Charan Swansi    Independent    13171    NO
14    AS    LAKHIMPUR        Ranee Narah    Indian National Congress    Dr. Arun Kr. Sarma    Asom Gana Parishad    22689    NO
1    BR    VALMIKI NAGAR        Baidyanath Prasad Mahto    Janata Dal (United)    Fakhruddin    Independent    92894    NO
2    BR    PASCHIM CHAMPARAN        Dr. Sanjay Jaiswal    Bharatiya Janata Party    Prakash Jha    Lok Jan Shakti Party    27380    NO
3    BR    PURVI CHAMPARAN        Radha Mohan Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Akhilesh Prasad Singh    Rashtriya Janata Dal    16852    NO
4    BR    SHEOHAR        Rama Devi    Bharatiya Janata Party    Sitaram Singh    Rashtriya Janata Dal    20138    NO
5    BR    SITAMARHI        Arjun Roy    Janata Dal (United)    Samir Kumar Mahaseth    Indian National Congress    58330    NO
6    BR    MADHUBANI        Hukmadeo Narayan Yadav    Bharatiya Janata Party    Abdulbari Siddiki    Rashtriya Janata Dal    14813    NO
7    BR    JHANJHARPUR        Mangani Lal Mandal    Janata Dal (United)    Devendra Prasad Yadav    Rashtriya Janata Dal    15645    NO
8    BR    SUPAUL        Vishwa Mohan Kumar    Janata Dal (United)    Ranjeet Ranjan    Indian National Congress    156716    NO
9    BR    ARARIA        Pradeep Kumar Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Zakir Hussain Khan    Lok Jan Shakti Party    990    NO
10    BR    KISHANGANJ        Mohammad Asrarul Haque    Indian National Congress    Syed Mahmood Ashraf    Janata Dal (United)    23819    NO
11    BR    KATIHAR        Nikhil Kumar Choudhary    Bharatiya Janata Party    Shah Tariq Anwar    Nationalist Congress Party    25043    NO
12    BR    PURNIA        Uday Singh Alias Pappu Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Shanti Priya    Independent    45055    NO
13    BR    MADHEPURA        Sharad Yadav    Janata Dal (United)    Prof. Ravindra Charan Yadav    Rashtriya Janata Dal    63004    NO
14    BR    DARBHANGA        Kirti Azad    Bharatiya Janata Party    Md. Ali Ashraf Fatmi    Rashtriya Janata Dal    10506    NO
15    BR    MUZAFFARPUR        Captain Jai Narayan Prasad Nishad    Janata Dal (United)    Bhagwanlal Sahni    Lok Jan Shakti Party    22358    NO
16    BR    VAISHALI        Raghuvansh Prasad Singh    Rashtriya Janata Dal    Vijay Kumar Shukla    Janata Dal (United)    16884    NO
17    BR    GOPALGANJ         Purnmasi Ram    Janata Dal (United)    Anil Kumar    Rashtriya Janata Dal    14206    NO
18    BR    SIWAN        Om Prakash Yadav    Independent    Hena Shahab    Rashtriya Janata Dal    46540    NO
19    BR    MAHARAJGANJ        Prabhu Nath Singh    Janata Dal (United)    Uma Shanaker Singh    Rashtriya Janata Dal    3826    NO
20    BR    SARAN        Lalu Prasad    Rashtriya Janata Dal    Rajiv Pratap Rudy    Bharatiya Janata Party    12043    NO
21    BR    HAJIPUR         Ram Sundar Das    Janata Dal (United)    Ram Vilas Paswan    Lok Jan Shakti Party    25499    NO
22    BR    UJIARPUR        Aswamedh Devi    Janata Dal (United)    Alok Kumar Mehta    Rashtriya Janata Dal    3919    NO
23    BR    SAMASTIPUR         Maheshwar Hazari    Janata Dal (United)    Ram Chandra Paswan    Lok Jan Shakti Party    16617    NO
24    BR    BEGUSARAI        Dr. Monazir Hassan    Janata Dal (United)    Shatrughna Prasad Singh    Communist Party of India    7134    NO
25    BR    KHAGARIA        Dinesh Chandra Yadav    Janata Dal (United)    Ravindar Kr. Rana    Rashtriya Janata Dal    111954    NO
26    BR    BHAGALPUR        Syed Shahnawaz Hussain    Bharatiya Janata Party    Shakuni Choudhary    Rashtriya Janata Dal    51019    NO
27    BR    BANKA        Digvijay Singh    Independent    Jai Prakesh Narain Yadav    Rashtriya Janata Dal    1717    NO
28    BR    MUNGER        Rajiv Ranjan Singh Alias Lalan Singh    Janata Dal (United)    Ram Badan Roy    Rashtriya Janata Dal    93963    NO
29    BR    NALANDA        Kaushalendra Kumar    Janata Dal (United)    Satish Kumar    Lok Jan Shakti Party    57221    NO
30    BR    PATNA SAHIB        Shatrughan Sinha    Bharatiya Janata Party    Vijay Kumar    Rashtriya Janata Dal    149553    NO
31    BR    PATALIPUTRA        Ranjan Prasad Yadav    Janata Dal (United)    Lalu Prasad    Rashtriya Janata Dal    18071    NO
32    BR    ARRAH        Meena Singh    Janata Dal (United)    Rama Kishore Singh    Lok Jan Shakti Party    32291    NO
33    BR    BUXAR        Lal Muni Choubey    Bharatiya Janata Party    Jagada Nand Singh    Rashtriya Janata Dal    5884    NO
34    BR    SASARAM         Meira Kumar    Indian National Congress    Muni Lal    Bharatiya Janata Party    7236    NO
35    BR    KARAKAT        Mahabali Singh    Janata Dal (United)    Kanti Singh    Rashtriya Janata Dal    15062    NO
36    BR    JAHANABAD         Jagdish Sharma    Janata Dal (United)    Surendra Prasad Yadav    Rashtriya Janata Dal    9210    NO
37    BR    AURANGABAD        Sushil Kumar Singh    Janata Dal (United)    Shakil Ahmad Khan    Rashtriya Janata Dal    27551    NO
38    BR    GAYA         Hari Manjhi    Bharatiya Janata Party    Ramji Manjhi    Rashtriya Janata Dal    58906    NO
39    BR    NAWADA        Bhola Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Veena Devi    Lok Jan Shakti Party    4582    NO
40    BR    JAMUI         Bhudeo Choudhary    Janata Dal (United)    Shyam Rajak    Rashtriya Janata Dal    19419    NO
1    GA    NORTH GOA        Shripad Yesso Naik    Bharatiya Janata Party    Jitendra Raghuraj Deshprabhu    Nationalist Congress Party    6353    NO
2    GA    SOUTH GOA        Cosme Francisco Caitano Sardinha    Indian National Congress    Adv. Narendra Keshav Sawaikar    Bharatiya Janata Party    12516    YES
1    GJ    KACHCHH        Jat Poonamben Veljibhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Danicha Valjibhai Punamchandra    Indian National Congress    69187    NO
2    GJ    BANASKANTHA        Gadhvi Mukeshkumar Bheiravdanji    Indian National Congress    Chaudhary Haribhai Parathibhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    10317    NO
3    GJ    PATAN        Jagdish Thakor    Indian National Congress    Rathod Bhavsinhbhai Dahyabhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    27015    NO
4    GJ    MAHESANA        Patel Jayshreeben Kanubhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Patel Jivabhai Ambalal    Indian National Congress    22003    YES
5    GJ    SABARKANTHA        Chauhan Mahendrasinh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Mistry Madhusudan    Indian National Congress    17160    NO
6    GJ    GANDHINAGAR        L.K.Advani    Bharatiya Janata Party    Patel Sureshkumar Chaturdas (Suresh Patel)    Indian National Congress    134558    NO
7    GJ    AHMEDABAD EAST        Harin Pathak    Bharatiya Janata Party    Babaria Dipakbhai Ratilal    Indian National Congress    89547    NO
8    GJ    AHMEDABAD WEST        Dr. Solanki Kiritbhai Premajibhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Parmar Shailesh Manharlal    Indian National Congress    91127    NO
9    GJ    SURENDRANAGAR        Mer Laljibhai Chaturbhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Koli Patel Somabhai Gandalal    Indian National Congress    1273    NO
10    GJ    RAJKOT        Kuvarjibhai Mohanbhai Bavalia    Indian National Congress    Kirankumar Valjibhai Bhalodia (Patel)    Bharatiya Janata Party    13362    NO
11    GJ    PORBANDAR        Radadiya Vitthalbhai Hansrajbhai    Indian National Congress    Khachariya Mansukhbhai Shamjibhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    38342    NO
12    GJ    JAMNAGAR        Ahir Vikrambhai Arjanbhai Madam    Indian National Congress    Mungra Rameshbhai Devrajbhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    2463    NO
13    GJ    JUNAGADH        Solanki Dinubhai Boghabhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Barad Jashubhai Dhanabhai    Indian National Congress    13759    NO
14    GJ    AMRELI        Kachhadia Naranbhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Nilaben Virjibhai Thummar    Indian National Congress    37317    NO
15    GJ    BHAVNAGAR        Rajendrasinh Ghanshyamsinh Rana (Rajubhai Rana)    Bharatiya Janata Party    Gohilmahavirsinhbhagirathsinh    Indian National Congress    13964    NO
16    GJ    ANAND        Solanki Bharatbhai Madhavsinh    Indian National Congress    Patel Dipakbhai Chimanbhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    67318    NO
17    GJ    KHEDA        Chauhan Devusinh Jesingbhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dinsha Patel    Indian National Congress    4973    NO
18    GJ    PANCHMAHAL        Chauhan Prabhatsinh Pratapsinh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Vaghela Shankarsinh Laxmansinh    Indian National Congress    2081    NO
19    GJ    DAHOD        Dr. Prabha Kishor Taviad    Indian National Congress    Damor Somjibhai Punjabhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    58536    NO
20    GJ    VADODARA        Balkrishna Khanderao Shukla (Balu Shukla)    Bharatiya Janata Party    Gaekwad Satyajitsinh Dulipsinh    Indian National Congress    136028    YES
21    GJ    CHHOTA UDAIPUR        Rathwa Ramsingbhai Patalbhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Rathwa Naranbhai Jemlabhai    Indian National Congress    13493    NO
22    GJ    BHARUCH        Mansukhbhai Dhanjibhai Vasava    Bharatiya Janata Party    Umerji Ahmed Ugharatdar (Aziz Tankarvi)    Indian National Congress    31846    NO
23    GJ    BARDOLI        Chaudhari Tusharbhai Amrasinhbhai    Indian National Congress    Vasava Riteshkumar Amarsinh    Bharatiya Janata Party    59463    NO
24    GJ    SURAT        Shrimati Darshana Vikram Jardosh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Gajera Dhirubhai Haribhai    Indian National Congress    74798    NO
25    GJ    NAVSARI        C. R. Patil    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dhansukha Rajput    Indian National Congress    118558    NO
26    GJ    VALSAD        Kishanbhai Vestabhai Patel    Indian National Congress    Patel Dhirubhai Chhaganbhai (Dr. D.C.Patel)    Bharatiya Janata Party    7169    NO
1    HR    AMBALA        Selja    Indian National Congress    Rattan Lal Kataria    Bharatiya Janata Party    14925    NO
2    HR    KURUKSHETRA        Naveen Jindal    Indian National Congress    Ashok Kumar Arora    Indian National Lok Dal    118729    NO
3    HR    SIRSA        Ashok Tanwar    Indian National Congress    Dr. Sita Ram    Indian National Lok Dal    35877    NO
4    HR    HISAR        Bhajan Lal S/O Kheraj    Haryana Janhit Congress (BL)    Sampat Singh    Indian National Lok Dal    24443    NO
5    HR    KARNAL        Arvind Kumar Sharma    Indian National Congress    Maratha Virender Verma    Bahujan Samaj Party    62190    NO
6    HR    SONIPAT        Jitender Singh    Indian National Congress    Kishan Singh Sangwan    Bharatiya Janata Party    148409    NO
7    HR    ROHTAK        Deepender Singh    Indian National Congress    Nafe Singh Rathee    Indian National Lok Dal    445736    NO
8    HR    BHIWANI-MAHENDRAGARH        Shruti Choudhry    Indian National Congress    Ajay Singh Chautala    Indian National Lok Dal    25647    NO
9    HR    GURGAON        Inderjit Singh    Indian National Congress    Zakir Hussain    Bahujan Samaj Party    86438    NO
10    HR    FARIDABAD        Avtar Singh Bhadana    Indian National Congress    Ramchander Bainda    Bharatiya Janata Party    49661    NO
1    HP    KANGRA        Dr. Rajan Sushant    Bharatiya Janata Party    Chander Kumar    Indian National Congress    24368    NO
2    HP    MANDI        Virbhadra Singh    Indian National Congress    Maheshwar Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    13997    YES
3    HP    HAMIRPUR        Anurag Singh Thakur    Bharatiya Janata Party    Narinder Thakur    Indian National Congress    72732    NO
4    HP    SHIMLA        Virender Kashyap    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dhani Ram Shandil    Indian National Congress    29568    NO
1    JK    BARAMULLA        Sharief Ud Din Shariq    Jammu & Kashmir National Conference    Mohammad Dilawar Mir    Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party    46361    NO
2    JK    SRINAGAR        Farooq Abdullah    Jammu & Kashmir National Conference    Iftikhar Hussain Ansari    Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party    30242    NO
3    JK    ANANTNAG        Mirza Mehboob Beg    Jammu & Kashmir National Conference    Peer Mohd Hussain    Jammu & Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party    373    NO
4    JK    LADAKH        Hassan Khan    Independent    Asgar Ali Karbalaie    Independent    7513    NO
5    JK    UDHAMPUR        Ch. Lal Singh    Indian National Congress    Dr. Nirmal Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    13394    NO
6    JK    JAMMU        Madan Lal Sharma    Indian National Congress    Lila Karan Sharma    Bharatiya Janata Party    118165    NO
1    KA    CHIKKODI        Katti Ramesh Vishwanath    Bharatiya Janata Party    Prakash Babanna Hukkeri    Indian National Congress    55287    YES
2    KA    BELGAUM        Angadi Suresh Channabasappa    Bharatiya Janata Party    Amarsinh Vasantrao Patil    Indian National Congress    118687    NO
3    KA    BAGALKOT        Gaddigoudar P.C.    Bharatiya Janata Party    J.T.Patil    Indian National Congress    35446    NO
4    KA    BIJAPUR        Ramesh Chandappa Jigajinagi    Bharatiya Janata Party    Prakash Kubasing Rathod    Indian National Congress    42404    YES
5    KA    GULBARGA        Mallikarjun Kharge    Indian National Congress    Revunaik Belamgi    Bharatiya Janata Party    13404    NO
6    KA    RAICHUR        Pakkirappa.S.    Bharatiya Janata Party    Raja Venkatappa Naik    Indian National Congress    30636    YES
7    KA    BIDAR        N.Dharam Singh    Indian National Congress    Gurupadappa Nagmarpalli    Bharatiya Janata Party    19342    NO
8    KA    KOPPAL        Shivaramagouda Shivanagouda    Bharatiya Janata Party    Basavaraj Rayareddy    Indian National Congress    81789    NO
9    KA    BELLARY        J. Shantha    Bharatiya Janata Party    N.Y. Hanumanthappa    Indian National Congress    2243    YES
10    KA    HAVERI        Udasi Shivkumar Chanabasappa    Bharatiya Janata Party    Saleem Ahamed    Indian National Congress    87920    NO
11    KA    DHARWAD        Pralhad Joshi    Bharatiya Janata Party    Kunnur Manjunath Channappa    Indian National Congress    137376    NO
12    KA    UTTARA KANNADA        Anantkumar Hegde    Bharatiya Janata Party    Alva Margaret    Indian National Congress    22769    YES
13    KA    DAVANAGERE        Mallikarjuna S.S.    Indian National Congress    Siddeswara G.M.    Bharatiya Janata Party    6103    NO
14    KA    SHIMOGA        B.Y. Raghavendra    Bharatiya Janata Party    S. Bangarappa    Indian National Congress    52694    NO
15    KA    UDUPI CHIKMAGALUR        D.V.Sadananda Gowda    Bharatiya Janata Party    K.Jayaprakash Hegde    Indian National Congress    17154    NO
16    KA    HASSAN        H. D. Devegowda    Janata Dal (Secular)    K. H. Hanume Gowda    Bharatiya Janata Party    191514    NO
17    KA    DAKSHINA KANNADA        Nalin Kumar Kateel    Bharatiya Janata Party    Janardhana Poojary    Indian National Congress    40420    YES
18    KA    CHITRADURGA        Janardhana Swamy    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dr. B Thippeswamy    Indian National Congress    107373    NO
19    KA    TUMKUR        G.S. Basavaraj    Bharatiya Janata Party    Muddahanumegowda S.P.    Janata Dal (Secular)    59288    NO
20    KA    MANDYA        N Cheluvaraya Swamy @ Swamygowda    Janata Dal (Secular)    M H Ambareesh    Indian National Congress    23437    NO
21    KA    MYSORE        Adagur H Vishwanath    Indian National Congress    C.H.Vijayashankar    Bharatiya Janata Party    7691    YES
22    KA    CHAMARAJANAGAR        R.Dhruvanarayana    Indian National Congress    A.R.Krishnamurthy    Bharatiya Janata Party    11470    NO
23    KA    BANGALORE RURAL        H.D.Kumaraswamy    Janata Dal (Secular)    C. P. Yogeeshwara    Bharatiya Janata Party    130275    NO
24    KA    BANGALORE NORTH        D. B. Chandre Gowda    Bharatiya Janata Party    C. K. Jaffer Sharief    Indian National Congress    49448    NO
25    KA    BANGALORE CENTRAL        P. C. Mohan    Bharatiya Janata Party    H.T.Sangliana    Indian National Congress    24385    NO
26    KA    BANGALORE SOUTH        Ananth Kumar    Bharatiya Janata Party    Krishna Byre Gowda    Indian National Congress    37612    NO
27    KA    CHIKKBALLAPUR        M.Veerappa Moily    Indian National Congress    C.Aswathanarayana    Bharatiya Janata Party    17697    NO
28    KA    KOLAR        K.H.Muniyappa    Indian National Congress    D.S.Veeraiah    Bharatiya Janata Party    23006    YES
1    KL    KASARAGOD        P Karunakaran    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Shahida Kamal    Indian National Congress    64427    NO
2    KL    KANNUR        K. Sudhakaran    Indian National Congress    K.K Ragesh    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    43151    YES
3    KL    VADAKARA        Mullappally Ramachandran    Indian National Congress    Adv. P. Satheedevi    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    56186    YES
4    KL    WAYANAD        M.I. Shanavas    Indian National Congress    Advocate. M. Rahmathulla    Communist Party of India    153439    NO
5    KL    KOZHIKODE        M.K. Raghavan    Indian National Congress    Adv. P.A. Mohamed Riyas    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    838    NO
6    KL    MALAPPURAM        E. Ahamed    Muslim League Kerala State Committee    T.K. Hamza    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    115569    NO
7    KL    PONNANI        E.T. Muhammed Basheer    Muslim League Kerala State Committee    Dr. Hussain Randathani    Independent    84478    NO
8    KL    PALAKKAD        M.B. Rajesh    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Satheesan Pacheni    Indian National Congress    1820    NO
9    KL    ALATHUR         P.K Biju    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    N.K Sudheer    Indian National Congress    20960    NO
10    KL    THRISSUR        P C Chacko    Indian National Congress    C N Jayadevan    Communist Party of India    25421    NO
11    KL    CHALAKUDY        K.P. Dhanapalan    Indian National Congress    Adv. U.P Joseph    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    71679    NO
12    KL    ERNAKULAM        Prof. K V Thomas    Indian National Congress    Sindhu Joy    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    11790    NO
13    KL    IDUKKI        Adv. P.T Thomas    Indian National Congress    Adv. K. Francis George    Kerala Congress    74796    NO
14    KL    KOTTAYAM        Jose K.Mani (Karingozheckal)    Kerala Congress (M)    Adv. Suresh Kurup    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    66170    NO
15    KL    ALAPPUZHA        K.C Venugopal    Indian National Congress    Dr. K.S Manoj    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    57791    NO
16    KL    MAVELIKKARA         Kodikkunnil Suresh    Indian National Congress    R.S Anil    Communist Party of India    48240    NO
17    KL    PATHANAMTHITTA        Anto Antony Punnathaniyil    Indian National Congress    Adv.K.Anantha Gopan    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    111206    NO
18    KL    KOLLAM        N.Peethambarakurup    Indian National Congress    P.Rajendran    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    17531    NO
19    KL    ATTINGAL        Adv. A Sampath    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Prof.G Balachandran    Indian National Congress    17660    NO
20    KL    THIRUVANANTHAPURAM        Shashi Tharoor    Indian National Congress    Adv. P Ramachandran Nair    Communist Party of India    100045    NO
1    MP    MORENA        Narendra Singh Tomar    Bharatiya Janata Party    Ramniwas Rawat    Indian National Congress    96255    NO
2    MP    BHIND        Ashok Argal    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dr. Bhagirath Prasad    Indian National Congress    8086    NO
3    MP    GWALIOR        Yashodhara Raje Scindia    Bharatiya Janata Party    Ashok Singh    Indian National Congress    21923    NO
4    MP    GUNA        Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia    Indian National Congress    Dr.Narottam Mishra    Bharatiya Janata Party    189578    NO
5    MP    SAGAR        Bhupendra Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Aslam Sher Khan    Indian National Congress    131168    NO
6    MP    TIKAMGARH        Virendra Kumar    Bharatiya Janata Party    Ahirwar Vrindavan    Indian National Congress    41862    NO
7    MP    DAMOH        Shivraj Bhaiya    Bharatiya Janata Party    Chandrabhan Bhaiya    Indian National Congress    55747    NO
8    MP    KHAJURAHO        Jeetendra Singh Bundela    Bharatiya Janata Party    Raja Paterya    Indian National Congress    28332    NO
9    MP    SATNA        Ganesh Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Sukhlal Kushwaha    Bahujan Samaj Party    377    NO
10    MP    REWA        Deoraj Singh Patel    Bahujan Samaj Party    Sunder Lal Tiwari    Indian National Congress    3644    NO
11    MP    SIDHI        Govind Prasad Mishra    Bharatiya Janata Party    Indrajeet Kumar    Indian National Congress    44915    NO
12    MP    SHAHDOL        Rajesh Nandini Singh    Indian National Congress    Narendra Singh Maravi    Bharatiya Janata Party    13415    NO
13    MP    JABALPUR        Rakesh Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Advocate Rameshwar Neekhra    Indian National Congress    106003    YES
14    MP    MANDLA        Basori Singh Masram    Indian National Congress    Faggan Singh Kulaste    Bharatiya Janata Party    62726    NO
15    MP    BALAGHAT        K. D. Deshmukh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Vishveshwar Bhagat    Indian National Congress    40898    NO
16    MP    CHHINDWARA        Kamal Nath    Indian National Congress    Marot Rao Khavase    Bharatiya Janata Party    74134    NO
17    MP    HOSHANGABAD        Uday Pratap Singh    Indian National Congress    Rampal Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    17542    NO
18    MP    VIDISHA        Sushma Swaraj    Bharatiya Janata Party    Choudhary Munabbar Salim    Samajwadi Party    375074    NO
19    MP    BHOPAL        Kailash Joshi    Bharatiya Janata Party    Surendra Singh Thakur    Indian National Congress    30764    NO
20    MP    RAJGARH        Narayansingh Amlabe    Indian National Congress    Lakshman Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    24856    NO
21    MP    DEWAS        Sajjan Singh Verma    Indian National Congress    Thavarchand Gehlot    Bharatiya Janata Party    16084    NO
22    MP    UJJAIN        Guddu Premchand    Indian National Congress    Dr. Satyanarayan Jatiya    Bharatiya Janata Party    15841    NO
23    MP    MANDSOUR        Meenakshi Natrajan    Indian National Congress    Dr. Laxminarayan Pandey    Bharatiya Janata Party    26817    NO
24    MP    RATLAM        Kantilal Bhuria    Indian National Congress    Dileepsingh Bhuria    Bharatiya Janata Party    57668    NO
25    MP    DHAR        Gajendra Singh Rajukhedi    Indian National Congress    Mukam Singh Kirade    Bharatiya Janata Party    2012    NO
26    MP    INDORE        Sumitra Mahajan (Tai)    Bharatiya Janata Party    Satynarayan Patel    Indian National Congress    11365    NO
27    MP    KHARGONE        Makansingh Solanki (Babuji)    Bharatiya Janata Party    Balaram Bachchan    Indian National Congress    34175    NO
28    MP    KHANDWA        Arun Subhashchandra Yadav    Indian National Congress    Nandkumar Sing Chauhan Nandu Bhaiya    Bharatiya Janata Party    49081    NO
29    MP    BETUL        Jyoti Dhurve    Bharatiya Janata Party    Ojharam Evane    Indian National Congress    97317    NO
1    MH    NANDURBAR         Gavit Manikrao Hodlya    Indian National Congress    Gavit Sharad Krushnrao    Samajwadi Party    13952    NO
2    MH    DHULE        Amarishbhai Rasiklal Patel    Indian National Congress    Sonawane Pratap Narayanrao    Bharatiya Janata Party    4220    NO
3    MH    JALGAON        A.T. Nana Patil    Bharatiya Janata Party    Adv. Vasantrao Jivanrao More    Nationalist Congress Party    96020    NO
4    MH    RAVER        Haribhau Madhav Jawale    Bharatiya Janata Party    Adv. Ravindra Pralhadrao Patil    Nationalist Congress Party    28692    NO
5    MH    BULDHANA        Jadhav Prataprao Ganpatrao    Shivsena    Shingane Dr.Rajendra Bhaskarrao    Nationalist Congress Party    30565    NO
6    MH    AKOLA        Dhotre Sanjay Shamrao    Bharatiya Janata Party    Ambedkar Prakash Yashwant    Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha    59331    NO
7    MH    AMRAVATI         Adsul Anandrao Vithoba    Shivsena    Gawai Rajendra Ramkrushna    Republican Party of India    33563    NO
8    MH    WARDHA        Datta Meghe    Indian National Congress    Suresh Ganpatrao Waghmare    Bharatiya Janata Party    121938    NO
9    MH    RAMTEK         Wasnik Mukul Balkrishna    Indian National Congress    Tumane Krupal Balaji    Shivsena    16465    NO
10    MH    NAGPUR         Muttemwar Vilasrao Baburaoji    Indian National Congress    Purohit Banwarilal Bhagwandas    Bharatiya Janata Party    7078    NO
11    MH    BHANDARA – GONDIYA        Patel Praful Manoharbhai    Nationalist Congress Party    Nanabhau Falgunrao Patole    Independent    119604    NO
12    MH    GADCHIROLI-CHIMUR        Kowase Marotrao Sainuji    Indian National Congress    Ashok Mahadeorao Nete    Bharatiya Janata Party    4795    NO
13    MH    CHANDRAPUR        Ahir Hansaraj Gangaram    Bharatiya Janata Party    Pugalia Naresh    Indian National Congress    7044    NO
14    MH    YAVATMAL-WASHIM        Bhavana Gawali (Patil)    Shivsena    Harising Rathod    Indian National Congress    114    NO
15    MH    HINGOLI         Subhash Bapurao Wankhede    Shivsena    Suryakanta Jaiwantrao Patil    Nationalist Congress Party    73569    NO
16    MH    NANDED        Khatgaonkar Patil Bhaskarrao Bapurao    Indian National Congress    Sambhaji Pawar    Bharatiya Janata Party    74975    NO
17    MH    PARBHANI        Adv. Dudhgaonkar Ganeshrao Nagorao    Shivsena    Warpudkar Suresh Ambadasrao    Nationalist Congress Party    30356    NO
18    MH    JALNA        Danve Raosaheb Dadarao    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dr. Kale Kalyan Vaijinathrao    Indian National Congress    9143    NO
19    MH    AURANGABAD        Chandrakant Khaire    Shivsena    Uttamsingh Rajdharsingh Pawar    Indian National Congress    18142    NO
20    MH    DINDORI         Chavan Harishchandra Deoram    Bharatiya Janata Party    Zirwal Narhari Sitaram    Nationalist Congress Party    37347    YES
21    MH    NASHIK        Sameer Bhujbal    Nationalist Congress Party    Godse Hemant Tukaram    Maharashtra Navnirman sena    22032    NO
22    MH    PALGHAR         Jadhav Baliram Sukur    Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi    Adv. Chintaman Vanga    Bharatiya Janata Party    12360    NO
23    MH    BHIWANDI        Taware Suresh Kashinath    Indian National Congress    Patil Jagannath Shivram    Bharatiya Janata Party    41364    YES
24    MH    KALYAN        Anand Prakash Paranjape    Shivsena    Davkhare Vasant Shankarrao    Nationalist Congress Party    21049    NO
25    MH    THANE        Dr.Sanjeev Ganesh Naik    Nationalist Congress Party    Chaugule Vijay Laxman    Shivsena    49020    NO
26    MH    MUMBAI NORTH        Sanjay Brijkishorlal Nirupam    Indian National Congress    Ram Naik    Bharatiya Janata Party    10054    NO
27    MH    MUMBAI NORTH WEST        Ad.Kamat Gurudas Vasant    Indian National Congress    Gajanan Kirtikar    Shivsena    33261    NO
28    MH    MUMBAI NORTH EAST        Sanjay Dina Patil    Nationalist Congress Party    Kirit Somaiya    Bharatiya Janata Party    2415    NO
29    MH    MUMBAI NORTH CENTRAL        Dutt Priya Sunil    Indian National Congress    Mahesh Ram Jethmalani    Bharatiya Janata Party    157401    NO
30    MH    MUMBAI SOUTH CENTRAL        Eknath M. Gaikwad    Indian National Congress    Suresh Anant Gambhir    Shivsena    69714    NO
31    MH    MUMBAI SOUTH        Deora Milind Murli    Indian National Congress    Bala Nandgaonkar    Maharashtra Navnirman sena    54220    NO
32    MH    RAIGAD        Anant Geete    Shivsena    Barrister A.R. Antulay    Indian National Congress    115119    NO
33    MH    MAVAL        Babar Gajanan Dharmshi    Shivsena    Pansare Azam Fakeerbhai    Nationalist Congress Party    60796    NO
34    MH    PUNE        Kalmadi Suresh    Indian National Congress    Anil Shirole    Bharatiya Janata Party    20225    NO
35    MH    BARAMATI        Supriya Sule    Nationalist Congress Party    Kanta Jaysing Nalawade    Bharatiya Janata Party    188399    NO
36    MH    SHIRUR        Adhalrao Shivaji Dattatray    Shivsena    Vilas Vithoba Lande    Nationalist Congress Party    140719    NO
37    MH    AHMADNAGAR         Gandhi Dilipkumar Mansukhlal    Bharatiya Janata Party    Kardile Shivaji Bhanudas    Nationalist Congress Party    42474    NO
38    MH    SHIRDI        Wakchaure Bhausaheb Rajaram    Shivsena    Athawale Ramdas Bandu    Republican Party of India (A)    132640    NO
39    MH    BEED        Munde Gopinathrao Pandurang    Bharatiya Janata Party    Kokate Ramesh Baburao (Adaskar)    Nationalist Congress Party    70369    NO
40    MH    OSMANABAD        Patil Padamsinha Bajirao    Nationalist Congress Party    Gaikwad Ravindra Vishwanath    Shivsena    17017    NO
41    MH    LATUR         Awale Jaywant Gangaram    Indian National Congress    Gaikwad Sunil Baliram    Bharatiya Janata Party    241    NO
42    MH    SOLAPUR         Shinde Sushilkumar Sambhajirao    Indian National Congress    Adv. Bansode Sharad Maruti    Bharatiya Janata Party    99585    NO
43    MH    MADHA        Pawar Sharadchandra Govindrao    Nationalist Congress Party    Deshmukh Subhash Sureshchandra    Bharatiya Janata Party    243142    NO
44    MH    SANGLI        Pratik Prakashbapu Patil    Indian National Congress    Ajitrao Shankarrao Ghorpade    Independent    43746    NO
45    MH    SATARA        Bhonsle Shrimant Chh. Udyanraje Pratapsinhmaharaj    Nationalist Congress Party    Purushottam Bajirao Jadhav    Shivsena    297515    NO
46    MH    RATNAGIRI – SINDHUDURG        Dr.Nilesh Narayan Rane    Indian National Congress    Suresh Prabhakar Prabhu    Shivsena    46750    NO
47    MH    KOLHAPUR        Sadashivrao Dadoba Mandlik     Independent    Chhatrapati Sambhajiraje Shahu    Nationalist Congress Party    36524    NO
48    MH    HATKANANGLE        Shetti Raju Alias Devappa Anna    Swabhimani Paksha    Mane Nivedita Sambhajirao    Nationalist Congress Party    63028    NO
1    MN    INNER MANIPUR        Dr. Thokchom Meinya    Indian National Congress    Moirangthem Nara    Communist Party of India    33321    NO
2    MN    OUTER MANIPUR        Thangso Baite    Indian National Congress    Mani Charenamei    Peoples Democratic Alliance    10586    NO
1    ML    SHILLONG        Vincent H Pala    Indian National Congress    John Filmore Kharshiing    United Democratic Party    107832    NO
2    ML    TURA         Agatha K. Sangma    Nationalist Congress Party    Debora C. Marak    Indian National Congress    17945    NO
1    MZ    MIZORAM        C.L.Ruala    Indian National Congress    Dr. H. Lallungmuana    Independent    96238    NO
1    NL    NAGALAND        C.M. Chang    Nagaland Peoples Front    K. Asungba Sangtam    Indian National Congress    422134    NO
1    OR    BARGARH        Sanjay Bhoi    Indian National Congress    Dr. Hamid Hussain    Biju Janata Dal    39632    NO
2    OR    SUNDARGARH         Jual Oram    Bharatiya Janata Party    Hemanand Biswal    Indian National Congress    6161    NO
3    OR    SAMBALPUR        Amarnath Pradhan    Indian National Congress    Rohit Pujari    Biju Janata Dal    26282    NO
4    OR    KEONJHAR         Yashbant Narayan Singh Laguri    Biju Janata Dal    Dhanurjaya Sidu    Indian National Congress    49221    NO
5    OR    MAYURBHANJ         Laxman Tudu    Biju Janata Dal    Sudam Marndi    Jharkhand Mukti Morcha    17259    NO
6    OR    BALASORE        Srikant Kumar Jena    Indian National Congress    Arun Dey    Nationalist Congress Party    10300    NO
7    OR    BHADRAK         Arjun Charan Sethi    Biju Janata Dal    Ananta Prasad Sethi    Indian National Congress    24187    NO
8    OR    JAJPUR         Mohan Jena    Biju Janata Dal    Amiya Kanta Mallik    Indian National Congress    36000    NO
9    OR    DHENKANAL        Tathagata Satpathy    Biju Janata Dal    Chandra Sekhar Tripathi    Indian National Congress    87929    NO
10    OR    BOLANGIR        Kalikesh Narayan Singh Deo    Biju Janata Dal    Narasingha Mishra    Indian National Congress    24022    NO
11    OR    KALAHANDI        Bhakta Charan Das    Indian National Congress    Subash Chandra Nayak    Biju Janata Dal    59795    NO
12    OR    NABARANGPUR         Pradeep Kumar Majhi    Indian National Congress    Domburu Majhi    Biju Janata Dal    25904    NO
13    OR    KANDHAMAL        Rudramadhab Ray    Biju Janata Dal    Ashok Sahu    Bharatiya Janata Party    57091    NO
14    OR    CUTTACK        Bhartruhari Mahtab    Biju Janata Dal    Bibhuti Bhusan Mishra    Indian National Congress    94756    NO
15    OR    KENDRAPARA         Baijayant Panda    Biju Janata Dal    Ranjib Biswal    Indian National Congress    27810    NO
16    OR    JAGATSINGHPUR         Bibhu Prasad Tarai    Communist Party of India    Rabindra Kumar Sethy    Indian National Congress    30229    NO
17    OR    PURI        Pinaki Misra    Biju Janata Dal    Braja Kishore Tripathy    Bharatiya Janata Party    81737    NO
18    OR    BHUBANESWAR        Prasanna Kumar Patasani    Biju Janata Dal    Santosh Mohanty    Indian National Congress    96043    NO
19    OR    ASKA        Nityananda Pradhan    Biju Janata Dal    Ramachandra Rath    Indian National Congress    94869    NO
20    OR    BERHAMPUR        Sidhant Mohapatra    Biju Janata Dal    Chandra Sekhar Sahu    Indian National Congress    23753    NO
21    OR    KORAPUT         Jayaram Pangi    Biju Janata Dal    Giridhar Gamang    Indian National Congress    42161    NO
1    PB    GURDASPUR        Partap Singh Bajwa    Indian National Congress    Vinod Khanna    Bharatiya Janata Party    1998    NO
2    PB    AMRITSAR        Navjot Singh Sidhu    Bharatiya Janata Party    Om Parkash Soni    Indian National Congress    9057    NO
3    PB    KHADOOR SAHIB        Dr. Rattan Singh Ajnala    Shiromani Akali Dal    Rana Gurjeet Singh    Indian National Congress    28869    NO
4    PB    JALANDHAR        Mohinder Singh Kaypee    Indian National Congress    Hans Raj Hans    Shiromani Akali Dal    36445    NO
5    PB    HOSHIARPUR        Santosh Chowdhary    Indian National Congress    Som Parkash    Bharatiya Janata Party    643    NO
6    PB    ANANDPUR SAHIB        Ravneet Singh    Indian National Congress    Dr. Daljit Singh Cheema    Shiromani Akali Dal    50363    NO
7    PB    LUDHIANA        Manish Tewari    Indian National Congress    Gurcharan Singh Galib    Shiromani Akali Dal    89676    NO
8    PB    FATEHGARH SAHIB        Sukhdev Singh    Indian National Congress    Charanjit Singh Atwal    Shiromani Akali Dal    34299    NO
9    PB    FARIDKOT        Paramjit Kaur Gulshan    Shiromani Akali Dal    Sukhwinder Singh Danny    Indian National Congress    68461    NO
10    PB    FEROZPUR        Sher Singh Ghubaya    Shiromani Akali Dal    Jagmeet Singh Brar    Indian National Congress    30853    NO
11    PB    BATHINDA        Harsimrat Kaur Badal    Shiromani Akali Dal    Raninder Singh    Indian National Congress    99521    NO
12    PB    SANGRUR        Vijay Inder Singla    Indian National Congress    Sukhdev Singh Dhindsa    Shiromani Akali Dal    42789    NO
13    PB    PATIALA        Preneet Kaur    Indian National Congress    Prem Singh Chandumajra    Shiromani Akali Dal    95502    NO
1    RJ    GANGANAGAR        Bharat Ram Meghwal    Indian National Congress    Nihal Chand    Bharatiya Janata Party    140668    NO
2    RJ    BIKANER        Arjun Ram Meghwal    Bharatiya Janata Party    Rewat Ram Panwar    Indian National Congress    19575    NO
3    RJ    CHURU        Ram Singh Kaswan    Bharatiya Janata Party    Rafique Mandelia    Indian National Congress    9525    NO
4    RJ    JHUNJHUNU        Sheesh Ram Ola    Indian National Congress    Dr Dasrath Singh Shekhawat    Bharatiya Janata Party    65321    NO
5    RJ    SIKAR        Mahadev Singh    Indian National Congress    Subhash Maharia    Bharatiya Janata Party    33819    NO
6    RJ    JAIPUR RURAL        Lal Chand Kataria    Indian National Congress    Rao Rajendra Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    45487    NO
7    RJ    JAIPUR        Mahesh Joshi    Indian National Congress    Ghanshyam Tiwari    Bharatiya Janata Party    3628    NO
8    RJ    ALWAR        Jitendra Singh    Indian National Congress    Dr.Kiran Yadav    Bharatiya Janata Party    149251    NO
9    RJ    BHARATPUR        Ratan Singh    Indian National Congress    Khemchand    Bharatiya Janata Party    80625    NO
10    RJ    KARAULI-DHOLPUR        Khiladi Lal Bairwa    Indian National Congress    Dr Manoj Rajoria    Bharatiya Janata Party    27752    NO
11    RJ    DAUSA        Kirodi Lal    Independent    Qummer Rubbani    Independent    23539    NO
12    RJ    TONK-SAWAI MADHOPUR        Namo Narain    Indian National Congress    Kirori Singh Bainsla    Bharatiya Janata Party    472    NO
13    RJ    AJMER        Sachin Pilot    Indian National Congress    Kiran Maheshwari    Bharatiya Janata Party    76135    YES
14    RJ    NAGAUR        Dr. Jyoti Mirdha    Indian National Congress    Bindu Chaudhary    Bharatiya Janata Party    155185    NO
15    RJ    PALI        Badri Ram Jakhar    Indian National Congress    Pusp Jain    Bharatiya Janata Party    171757    NO
16    RJ    JODHPUR        Chandresh Kumari    Indian National Congress    Jaswant Singh Bisnoi    Bharatiya Janata Party    98259    YES
17    RJ    BARMER        Harish Choudhary    Indian National Congress    Manvendra Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    119106    NO
18    RJ    JALORE        Devji Patel    Bharatiya Janata Party    Buta Singh    Independent    29177    NO
19    RJ    UDAIPUR        Raghuvir Singh Meena    Indian National Congress    Mahaveer Bhagora    Bharatiya Janata Party    165021    NO
20    RJ    BANSWARA        Tarachand Bhagora    Indian National Congress    Hakaru Maida    Bharatiya Janata Party    199418    YES
21    RJ    CHITTORGARH        (Dr.)girija Vyas    Indian National Congress    Shrichand Kriplani    Bharatiya Janata Party    65731    NO
22    RJ    RAJSAMAND        Gopal Singh    Indian National Congress    Rasa Singh Rawat    Bharatiya Janata Party    38178    NO
23    RJ    BHILWARA        Dr. C. P. Joshi    Indian National Congress    Vijayendra Pal Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    135368    NO
24    RJ    KOTA        Ijyaraj Singh    Indian National Congress    Shyam Sharma    Bharatiya Janata Party    68106    NO
25    RJ    JHALAWAR-BARAN        Dushyant Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Urmila Jain “bhaya”    Indian National Congress    25503    NO
1    SK    SIKKIM        Prem Das Rai    Sikkim Democratic Front    Kharananda Upreti    Indian National Congress    48955    NO
1    TN    THIRUVALLUR         Venugopal.P    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Gayathri.S    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    27607    NO
2    TN    CHENNAI NORTH        Elangovan T.K.S    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Pandian. D    Communist Party of India    28385    NO
3    TN    CHENNAI SOUTH        Rajendran C    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Bharathy R.S.    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    12962    NO
4    TN    CHENNAI CENTRAL        Dayanidhi Maran    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Mogamed Ali Jinnah S.M.K.    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    24352    NO
5    TN    SRIPERUMBUDUR        Baalu T R    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Moorthy A K    Pattali Makkal Katchi    8222    NO
6    TN    KANCHEEPURAM         Viswanathan.P    Indian National Congress    Ramakrishnan.Dr.E    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    7297    NO
7    TN    ARAKKONAM        Jagathrakshakan    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Velu R    Pattali Makkal Katchi    103407    NO
8    TN    VELLORE        Abdulrahman    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Vasu L K M B    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    107393    NO
9    TN    KRISHNAGIRI        Sugavanam. E.G.    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Nanjegowdu. K.    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    45858    NO
10    TN    DHARMAPURI        Thamaraiselvan. R    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Senthil. R. Dr.    Pattali Makkal Katchi    107130    NO
11    TN    TIRUVANNAMALAI        Venugopal.D    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Guru (A) Gurunathan. J    Pattali Makkal Katchi    110998    NO
12    TN    ARANI        Krishnasamy M    Indian National Congress    Subramaniyan N    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    78457    NO
13    TN    VILUPPURAM        Anandan M    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Swamidurai K    Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katch    9108    NO
14    TN    KALLAKURICHI        Sankar Adhi    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Dhanaraju K    Pattali Makkal Katchi    105958    NO
15    TN    SALEM        Semmalai S    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Thangkabalu K V    Indian National Congress    41509    NO
16    TN    NAMAKKAL        Gandhiselvan.S    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Vairam Tamilarasi.V    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    87495    NO
17    TN    ERODE        Ganeshamurthi.A.    Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Elangovan.E.V.K.S.    Indian National Congress    45254    NO
18    TN    TIRUPPUR        Sivasami C    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Kharventhan S K    Indian National Congress    85966    NO
19    TN    NILGIRIS         Raja A    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Krishnan C    Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    75810    NO
20    TN    COIMBATORE        Prabhu.R    Indian National Congress    Natarajan.P.R.    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    41048    NO
21    TN    POLLACHI        Sugumar.K    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Shanmugasundaram.K    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    45431    NO
22    TN    DINDIGUL        Chitthan N S V    Indian National Congress    Baalasubramani P    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    54347    YES
23    TN    KARUR        Tambidurai.M    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Pallanishamy. K.C.    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    31070    NO
24    TN    TIRUCHIRAPPALLI        Kumar.P    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Sarubala.R.Thondaiman    Indian National Congress    5681    NO
25    TN    PERAMBALUR        Napoleon,D.    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Balasubramanian,K.K.    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    66551    NO
26    TN    CUDDALORE         Alagiri S    Indian National Congress    Sampath M C    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    23136    NO
27    TN    CHIDAMBARAM         Thirumaavalavan, Thol    Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katch    Ponnuswamy,E    Pattali Makkal Katchi    86277    NO
28    TN    MAYILADUTHURAI        Manian O.S    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Mani Shankar Aiyar    Indian National Congress    36854    NO
29    TN    NAGAPATTINAM         Vijayan A K S    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Selvaraj M    Communist Party of India    30273    NO
30    TN    THANJAVUR        Palanimanickam.S.S    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Durai.Balakrishnan    Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    101124    NO
31    TN    SIVAGANGA        Raja Kannappan R.S.    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Chidambaram P    Indian National Congress    490    NO
32    TN    MADURAI        Alagiri M.K    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Mohan P    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    140985    NO
33    TN    THENI         Aaron Rashid.J.M    Indian National Congress    Thanga Tamilselvan    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    5503    NO
34    TN    VIRUDHUNAGAR        Manicka Tagore    Indian National Congress    Vaiko    Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    15764    NO
35    TN    RAMANATHAPURAM        Sivakumar @ J.K. Ritheesh. K    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Sathiamoorthy. V    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    56352    NO
36    TN    THOOTHUKKUDI        Jeyadurai.S.R    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Cynthia Pandian.Dr    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    76671    NO
37    TN    TENKASI         Lingam P    Communist Party of India    Vellaipandi G    Indian National Congress    34677    NO
38    TN    TIRUNELVELI        Ramasubbu S    Indian National Congress    Annamalai K    All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    20948    NO
39    TN    KANNIYAKUMARI        Helen Davidson J    Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam    Radhakrishnan P    Bharatiya Janata Party    63826    NO
1    TR    TRIPURA WEST        Khagen Das    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Sudip Roy Barman    Indian National Congress    241235    NO
2    TR    TRIPURA EAST        Baju Ban Riyan    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Diba Chandra Hrangkhawl    Indian National Congress    291209    NO
1    UP    SAHARANPUR        Jagdish Singh Rana    Bahujan Samaj Party    Rasheed Masood    Samajwadi Party    36681    NO
2    UP    KAIRANA        Tabassum Begum    Bahujan Samaj Party    Hukum Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    14047    NO
3    UP    MUZAFFARNAGAR        Kadir Rana    Bahujan Samaj Party    Anuradha Chaudhary    Rashtriya Lok Dal    21002    NO
4    UP    BIJNOR        Sanjay Singh Chauhan    Rashtriya Lok Dal    Shahid Siddiqui    Bahujan Samaj Party    10372    NO
5    UP    NAGINA        Yashvir Singh    Samajwadi Party    Ram Kishan Singh    Bahujan Samaj Party    11920    NO
6    UP    MORADABAD        Mohammed Azharuddin    Indian National Congress    Kunwar Sarvesh Kumar Alias Rakesh    Bharatiya Janata Party    24445    NO
7    UP    RAMPUR        Jaya Prada Nahata    Samajwadi Party    Begum Noor Bano Urf Mehtab Zamani Begum    Indian National Congress    12093    NO
8    UP    SAMBHAL        Dr. Shafiqur Rahman Barq    Bahujan Samaj Party    Iqbal Mehmood    Samajwadi Party    19762    NO
9    UP    AMROHA        Devendra Nagpal    Rashtriya Lok Dal    Mehboob Ali    Samajwadi Party    39398    NO
10    UP    MEERUT        Rajendra Agarwal    Bharatiya Janata Party    Malook Nagar    Bahujan Samaj Party    3674    NO
11    UP    BAGHPAT        Ajit Singh    Rashtriya Lok Dal    Mukesh Sharma    Bahujan Samaj Party    63382    NO
12    UP    GHAZIABAD        Rajnath Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Surendra Prakash Goel    Indian National Congress    43627    NO
13    UP    GAUTAM BUDDH NAGAR        Surendra Singh Nagar    Bahujan Samaj Party    Mahesh Kumar Sharma    Bharatiya Janata Party    26730    NO
14    UP    BULANDSHAHR        Kamlesh    Samajwadi Party    Ashok Kumar Pradhan    Bharatiya Janata Party    14776    NO
15    UP    ALIGARH        Zafar Alam    Samajwadi Party    Raj Kumari Chauhan    Bahujan Samaj Party    12277    NO
16    UP    HATHRAS        Sarika Singh    Rashtriya Lok Dal    Rajendra Kumar    Bahujan Samaj Party    20754    NO
17    UP    MATHURA        Jayant Chaudhary    Rashtriya Lok Dal    Shyam Sunder Sharma    Bahujan Samaj Party    35239    NO
18    UP    AGRA        Kunwar Chand (Vakil)    Bahujan Samaj Party    Dr. Ramshankar    Bharatiya Janata Party    3836    NO
19    UP    FATEHPUR SIKRI        Raj Babbar    Indian National Congress    Seema Upadhyay    Bahujan Samaj Party    10025    NO
20    UP    FIROZABAD        Akhilesh Yadav    Samajwadi Party    Prof. S.P. Singh Baghel    Bahujan Samaj Party    52555    NO
21    UP    MAINPURI        Mulayam Singh Yadav    Samajwadi Party    Vinay Shakya    Bahujan Samaj Party    93137    NO
22    UP    ETAH        Kalyan Singh R O Madholi    Independent    Kunwar Devendra Singh Yadav    Bahujan Samaj Party    102812    NO
23    UP    BADAUN        Dharmendra Yadav    Samajwadi Party    Dharam Yadav Urf D. P. Yadav    Bahujan Samaj Party    12579    NO
24    UP    AONLA        Menka Gandhi    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dharmendra Kumar    Samajwadi Party    1217    NO
25    UP    BAREILLY        Praveen Singh Aron    Indian National Congress    Santosh Gangwar    Bharatiya Janata Party    9439    NO
26    UP    PILIBHIT        Feroze Varun Gandhi    Bharatiya Janata Party    V. M. Singh    Indian National Congress    224196    NO
27    UP    SHAHJAHANPUR        Mithlesh    Samajwadi Party    Sunita Singh    Bahujan Samaj Party    43831    NO
28    UP    KHERI        Zafar Ali Naqvi    Indian National Congress    Ajay Kumar    Bharatiya Janata Party    16020    NO
29    UP    DHAURAHRA        Kunwar Jitin Prasad    Indian National Congress    Rajesh Kumar Singh Alias Rajesh Verma    Bahujan Samaj Party    96823    NO
30    UP    SITAPUR        Kaisar Jahan    Bahujan Samaj Party    Mahendra Singh Verma    Samajwadi Party    19638    NO
31    UP    HARDOI        Usha Verma    Samajwadi Party    Ram Kumar Kuril    Bahujan Samaj Party    87402    NO
32    UP    MISRIKH        Ashok Kumar Rawat    Bahujan Samaj Party    Shyam Prakash    Samajwadi Party    22999    NO
33    UP    UNNAO        Annutandon    Indian National Congress    Arunshankarshukla    Bahujan Samaj Party    195269    NO
34    UP    MOHANLALGANJ        Sushila Saroj    Samajwadi Party    Jai Prakash    Bahujan Samaj Party    66348    NO
35    UP    LUCKNOW        Lal Ji Tandon    Bharatiya Janata Party    Rita Bahuguna Joshi    Indian National Congress    31090    NO
36    UP    RAE BARELI        Sonia Gandhi    Indian National Congress    R.S.Kushwaha    Bahujan Samaj Party    276054    NO
37    UP    AMETHI        Rahul Gandhi    Indian National Congress    Asheesh Shukla    Bahujan Samaj Party    157511    NO
38    UP    SULTANPUR        Dr.Sanjay Singh    Indian National Congress    Mohd.Tahir    Bahujan Samaj Party    69185    NO
39    UP    PRATAPGARH        Rajkumari Ratna Singh    Indian National Congress    Prof. Shivakant Ojha    Bahujan Samaj Party    6346    NO
40    UP    FARRUKHABAD        Naresh Chandra Agrawal    Bahujan Samaj Party    Salman Khursheed    Indian National Congress    5472    NO
41    UP    ETAWAH        Premdas    Samajwadi Party    Gaurishanker    Bahujan Samaj Party    43513    NO
42    UP    KANNAUJ        Akhilesh Yadav    Samajwadi Party    Dr. Mahesh Chandra Verma    Bahujan Samaj Party    110828    NO
43    UP    KANPUR        Sri Prakash Jaiswal    Indian National Congress    Satish Mahana    Bharatiya Janata Party    14161    NO
44    UP    AKBARPUR        Rajaram Pal    Indian National Congress    Anil Shukla Warsi    Bahujan Samaj Party    30075    NO
45    UP    JALAUN        Ghansyam Anuragi    Samajwadi Party    Tilak Chandra Ahirwar    Bahujan Samaj Party    7332    NO
46    UP    JHANSI        Pradeep Kumar Jain (Aditya)    Indian National Congress    Ramesh Kumar Sharma    Bahujan Samaj Party    7228    NO
47    UP    HAMIRPUR        Vijay Bahadur Singh    Bahujan Samaj Party    Siddha Gopal Sahu    Indian National Congress    13663    NO
48    UP    BANDA        R. K. Singh Patel    Samajwadi Party    Bhairon Prasad Mishra    Bahujan Samaj Party    26245    NO
49    UP    FATEHPUR         Rakesh Sachan    Samajwadi Party    Mahendra Prasad Nishad    Bahujan Samaj Party    22816    NO
50    UP    KAUSHAMBI        Shailendra Kumar    Samajwadi Party    Girish Chandra Pasi    Bahujan Samaj Party    16569    NO
51    UP    PHULPUR        Kapil Muni Karwariya    Bahujan Samaj Party    Shyama Charan Gupta    Samajwadi Party    13881    NO
52    UP    ALLAHABAD        Kunwar Rewati Raman Singh Alias Mani Ji    Samajwadi Party    Ashok Kumar Bajpai    Bahujan Samaj Party    17435    NO
53    UP    BARABANKI        P.L.Punia    Indian National Congress    Kamala Prasad Rawat    Bahujan Samaj Party    147335    NO
54    UP    FAIZABAD        Nirmal Khatri    Indian National Congress    Mitrasen    Samajwadi Party    41691    NO
55    UP    AMBEDKAR NAGAR        Rakesh Pandey    Bahujan Samaj Party    Shankhlal Majhi    Samajwadi Party    8227    NO
56    UP    BAHRAICH        Kamal Kishor    Indian National Congress    Lal Mani Prasad    Bahujan Samaj Party    41205    NO
57    UP    KAISERGANJ        Brijbhushan Sharan Singh    Samajwadi Party    Dr Lalta Prasad Mishra Alias Dr L P Mishra    Bharatiya Janata Party    27873    NO
58    UP    SHRAWASTI        Vinay Kumar Alias Vinnu    Indian National Congress    Rizvan Zaheer    Bahujan Samaj Party    38796    NO
59    UP    GONDA        Beni Prasad Verma    Indian National Congress    Kirti Vardhan Singh (Raja Bhaiya)    Bahujan Samaj Party    22898    NO
60    UP    DOMARIYAGANJ        Jagdambika Pal    Indian National Congress    Jai Pratap Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    21356    NO
61    UP    BASTI        Arvind Kumar Chaudhary    Bahujan Samaj Party    Raj Kishor Singh    Samajwadi Party    77981    NO
62    UP    SANT KABIR NAGAR        Bhisma Shankar Alias Kushal Tiwari    Bahujan Samaj Party    Bhal Chandra Yadav    Samajwadi Party    17218    NO
63    UP    MAHARAJGANJ        Harsh Vardhan    Indian National Congress    Ganesh Shanker Pandey    Bahujan Samaj Party    52122    NO
64    UP    GORAKHPUR        Adityanath    Bharatiya Janata Party    Vinay Shankar Tiwari    Bahujan Samaj Party    70171    NO
65    UP    KUSHI NAGAR        Ku. Ratanjeet Pratap Narayan Singh    Indian National Congress    Swami Prasad Maurya    Bahujan Samaj Party    10593    NO
66    UP    DEORIA        Gorakh Prasad Jaiswal    Bahujan Samaj Party    Shri Prakash Mani Tripathi    Bharatiya Janata Party    16718    NO
67    UP    BANSGAON        Kamlesh Paswan    Bharatiya Janata Party    Shree Nath Ji    Bahujan Samaj Party    22382    NO
68    UP    LALGANJ        Dr. Baliram    Bahujan Samaj Party    Neelam Sonkar    Bharatiya Janata Party    38531    NO
69    UP    AZAMGARH        Ramakant Yadav    Bharatiya Janata Party    Akbar Ahmad Dumpy    Bahujan Samaj Party    36914    NO
70    UP    GHOSI        Dara Singh Chauhan    Bahujan Samaj Party    Arshad Jamal Ansari    Samajwadi Party    17965    NO
71    UP    SALEMPUR        Ramashankar Rajbhar    Bahujan Samaj Party    Dr. Bhola Pandey    Indian National Congress    4923    NO
72    UP    BALLIA        Neeraj Shekhar    Samajwadi Party    Sangram Singh Yadav    Bahujan Samaj Party    41103    NO
73    UP    JAUNPUR        Dhananjay Singh    Bahujan Samaj Party    Paras Nath Yadava    Samajwadi Party    53859    NO
74    UP    MACHHLISHAHR        Tufani Saroj    Samajwadi Party    Kamla Kant Gautam (K.K. Gautam)    Bahujan Samaj Party    19050    NO
75    UP    GHAZIPUR        Radhey Mohan Singh    Samajwadi Party    Afzal Ansari    Bahujan Samaj Party    50237    NO
76    UP    CHANDAULI        Ramkishun    Samajwadi Party    Kailash Nath Singh Yadav    Bahujan Samaj Party    10919    NO
77    UP    VARANASI        Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi    Bharatiya Janata Party    Mukhtar Ansari    Bahujan Samaj Party    5750    NO
78    UP    BHADOHI        Gorakhnath    Bahujan Samaj Party    Chhotelal Bind    Samajwadi Party    12980    NO
79    UP    MIRZAPUR        Bal Kumar Patel    Samajwadi Party    Anil Kumar Maurya    Bahujan Samaj Party    8519    NO
80    UP    ROBERTSGANJ        Pakauri Lal    Samajwadi Party    Ram Chandra Tyagi    Bahujan Samaj Party    46930    NO
1    WB    COOCH BEHAR        Nripendra Nath Roy    All India Forward Bloc    Arghya Roy Pradhan    All India Trinamool Congress    37085    NO
2    WB    ALIPURDUARS        Manohar Tirkey    Revolutionary Socialist Party    Paban Kumar Lakra    All India Trinamool Congress    112516    NO
3    WB    JALPAIGURI        Mahendra Kumar Roy    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Barma Sukhbilas    Indian National Congress    67529    NO
4    WB    DARJEELING        Jaswant Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Jibesh Sarkar    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    271267    NO
5    WB    RAIGANJ        Deepa Dasmunsi    Indian National Congress    Bireswar Lahiri    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    68682    NO
6    WB    BALURGHAT        Prasanta Kumar Majumdar    Revolutionary Socialist Party    Biplab Mitra    All India Trinamool Congress    1610    NO
7    WB    MALDAHA UTTAR        Mausam Noor    Indian National Congress    Sailen Sarkar    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    18758    NO
8    WB    MALDAHA DAKSHIN        Abu Hasem Khan Choudhury    Indian National Congress    Abdur Razzaque    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    126935    NO
9    WB    JANGIPUR        Pranab Mukherjee    Indian National Congress    Mriganka Sekhar Bhattacharya    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    61761    NO
10    WB    BAHARAMPUR        Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury    Indian National Congress    Pramothes Mukherjee    Revolutionary Socialist Party    68254    NO
11    WB    MURSHIDABAD        Abdul Mannan Hossain    Indian National Congress    Anisur Rahaman Sarkar    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    11288    NO
12    WB    KRISHNANAGAR        Tapas Paul    All India Trinamool Congress    Jyotirmoyee Sikdar    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    50892    NO
13    WB    RANAGHAT        Sucharu Ranjan Haldar    All India Trinamool Congress    Basudeb Barman    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    48444    NO
14    WB    BANGAON        Gobinda Chandra Naskar    All India Trinamool Congress    Asim Bala    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    15248    NO
15    WB    BARRACKPORE        Dinesh Trivedi    All India Trinamool Congress    Tarit Baran Topdar    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    36729    NO
16    WB    DUM DUM        Saugata Ray    All India Trinamool Congress    Amitava Nandy    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    3651    NO
17    WB    BARASAT        Kakali Ghosh Dastidar    All India Trinamool Congress    Sudin Chattopadhyay    All India Forward Bloc    29999    NO
18    WB    BASIRHAT        Sk. Nurul Islam    All India Trinamool Congress    Ajay Chakraborty    Communist Party of India    4259    NO
19    WB    JOYNAGAR        Dr. Tarun Mondal    Independent    Nimai Barman    Revolutionary Socialist Party    41657    NO
20    WB    MATHURAPUR        Choudhury Mohan Jatua    All India Trinamool Congress    Animesh Naskar    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    6717    NO
21    WB    DIAMOND HARBOUR        Somendra Nath Mitra    All India Trinamool Congress    Samik Lahiri    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    69116    NO
22    WB    JADAVPUR        Kabir Suman    All India Trinamool Congress    Sujan Chakraborty    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    24147    NO
23    WB    KOLKATA DAKSHIN        Mamata Banerjee    All India Trinamool Congress    Rabin Deb    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    137046    NO
24    WB    KOLKATA UTTAR        Sudip Bandyopadhyay    All India Trinamool Congress    Md. Salim    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    64971    NO
25    WB    HOWRAH        Ambica Banerjee    All India Trinamool Congress    Swadesh Chakrabortty    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    10672    NO
26    WB    ULUBERIA        Sultan Ahmed    All India Trinamool Congress    Hannan Mollah    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    53703    NO
27    WB    SRERAMPUR        Kalyan Banerjee    All India Trinamool Congress    Santasri Chatterjee    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    92670    NO
28    WB    HOOGHLY        Dr. Ratna De(Nag)    All India Trinamool Congress    Rupchand Pal    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    56711    NO
29    WB    ARAMBAGH        Malik Sakti Mohan    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Sambhu Nath Malik    Indian National Congress    144361    NO
30    WB    TAMLUK        Adhikari Suvendu    All India Trinamool Congress    Lakshman Chandra Seth    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    16735    NO
31    WB    KANTHI        Adhikari Sisir Kumar    All India Trinamool Congress    Prasanta Pradhan    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    36085    NO
32    WB    GHATAL        Gurudas Dasgupta    Communist Party of India    Nure Alam Chowdhury    All India Trinamool Congress    62938    NO
33    WB    JHARGRAM        Pulin Bihari Baske    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Amrit Hansda    Indian National Congress    109497    NO
34    WB    MEDINIPUR        Prabodh Panda    Communist Party of India    Dipak Kumar Ghosh    All India Trinamool Congress    32890    NO
35    WB    PURULIA        Narahari Mahato    All India Forward Bloc    Shantiram Mahato    Indian National Congress    5978    NO
36    WB    BANKURA        Acharia Basudeb    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Subrata Mukherjee    Indian National Congress    44697    NO
37    WB    BISHNUPUR        Susmita Bauri    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Seuli Saha    All India Trinamool Congress    54371    NO
38    WB    BARDHAMAN PURBA        Anup Kumar Saha    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Ashoke Biswas    All India Trinamool Congress    52048    NO
39    WB    BURDWAN – DURGAPUR        Sk. Saidul Haque    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Nargis Begam    Indian National Congress    79822    NO
40    WB    ASANSOL        Bansa Gopal Chowdhury    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Ghatak Moloy    All India Trinamool Congress    46638    NO
41    WB    BOLPUR        Doctor Ram Chandra Dome    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    Asit Kumar Mal    Indian National Congress    76596    NO
42    WB    BIRBHUM        Satabdi Roy    All India Trinamool Congress    Braja Mukherjee    Communist Party of India (Marxist)    15936    NO
1    CG    SARGUJA        Murarilal Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    Bhanu Pratap Singh    Indian National Congress    113866    NO
2    CG    RAIGARH        Vishnu Deo Sai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Hridayaram Rathiya    Indian National Congress    41920    NO
3    CG    JANJGIR-CHAMPA        Shrimati Kamla Devi Patle    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dr.Shivkumar Dahariya    Indian National Congress    35284    NO
4    CG    KORBA        Charan Das Mahant    Indian National Congress    Karuna Shukla    Bharatiya Janata Party    10348    NO
5    CG    BILASPUR        Dilip Singh Judev    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dr.Renu Jogi    Indian National Congress    18186    NO
6    CG    RAJNANDGAON        Madhusudan Yadav    Bharatiya Janata Party    Devwrat Singh    Indian National Congress    91638    NO
7    CG    DURG        Saroj Pandey    Bharatiya Janata Party    Pradeep Choubey    Indian National Congress    3397    NO
8    CG    RAIPUR        Ramesh Bais    Bharatiya Janata Party    Bhupesh Baghel    Indian National Congress    28680    NO
9    CG    MAHASAMUND        Chandulal Sahu (Chandu Bhaiya)    Bharatiya Janata Party    Motilal Sahu    Indian National Congress    12100    NO
10    CG    BASTAR        Baliram Kashyap    Bharatiya Janata Party    Shankar Sodi    Indian National Congress    63828    NO
11    CG    KANKER        Sohan Potai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Smt. Phoolo Devi Netam    Indian National Congress    18247    NO
1    JH    RAJMAHAL        Devidhan Besra    Bharatiya Janata Party    Hemlal Murmu    Jharkhand Mukti Morcha    3694    NO
2    JH    DUMKA        Shibu Soren    Jharkhand Mukti Morcha    Sunil Soren    Bharatiya Janata Party    8319    NO
3    JH    GODDA        Nishikant Dubey    Bharatiya Janata Party    Furkan Ansari    Indian National Congress    18747    NO
4    JH    CHATRA        Inder Singh Namdhari    Independent    Dhiraj Prasad Sahu    Indian National Congress    16178    NO
5    JH    KODARMA        Babulal Marandi    Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik)    Raj Kumar Yadav    Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Liberation)    38742    NO
6    JH    GIRIDIH        Ravindra Kumar Pandey    Bharatiya Janata Party    Saba Ahmad    Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik)    61580    NO
7    JH    DHANBAD        Chandrashekhar Dubey    Indian National Congress    Pashupati Nath Singh    Bharatiya Janata Party    4456    NO
8    JH    RANCHI        Ram Tahal Choudhary    Bharatiya Janata Party    Subodh Kant Sahay    Indian National Congress    9420    NO
9    JH    JAMSHEDPUR        Arjun Munda    Bharatiya Janata Party    Suman Mahato    Jharkhand Mukti Morcha    57892    NO
10    JH    SINGHBHUM        Madhu Kora    Independent    Barkuwar Gagrai    Bharatiya Janata Party    84088    NO
11    JH    KHUNTI        Karia Munda    Bharatiya Janata Party    Neil Tirkey    Indian National Congress    29812    NO
12    JH    LOHARDAGA        Chamra Linda    Independent    Sudarshan Bhagat    Bharatiya Janata Party    2916    NO
13    JH    PALAMAU        Kameshwar Baitha    Jharkhand Mukti Morcha    Ghuran Ram    Rashtriya Janata Dal    4812    NO
14    JH    HAZARIBAGH        Yashwant Sinha    Bharatiya Janata Party    Saurabh Narain Singh    Indian National Congress    9161    NO
1    UK    TEHRI GARHWAL        Vijay Bahuguna    Indian National Congress    Jaspal Rana    Bharatiya Janata Party    45804    NO
2    UK    GARHWAL        Satpal Maharaj    Indian National Congress    Lt. Gen(Retd) Tejpal Singh Rawat P.V.S.M, V.S.M    Bharatiya Janata Party    17257    NO
3    UK    ALMORA        Pradeep Tamta    Indian National Congress    Ajay Tamta    Bharatiya Janata Party    6848    NO
4    UK    NAINITAL-UDHAMSINGH NAGAR        K.C. Singh Baba    Indian National Congress    Bachi Singh Rawat    Bharatiya Janata Party    78365    NO
5    UK    HARDWAR        Harish Rawat    Indian National Congress    Swami Yatindranand Giri    Bharatiya Janata Party    85040    NO
1    AN    ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS        Shri. Bishnu Pada Ray    Bharatiya Janata Party    Shri. Kuldeep Rai Sharma    Indian National Congress    3618    NO
1    CH    CHANDIGARH        Pawan Kumar Bansal    Indian National Congress    Satya Pal Jain    Bharatiya Janata Party    58967    YES
1    DN    DADAR & NAGAR HAVELI        Patel Natubhai Gomanbhai    Bharatiya Janata Party    Delkar Mohanbhai Sanjibhai    Indian National Congress    618    YES
1    DD    DAMAN & DIU        Lalubhai Patel    Bharatiya Janata Party    Dahyabhai Vallabhbhai Patel    Indian National Congress    24838    YES
1    DL    CHANDNI CHOWK        Kapil Sibal    Indian National Congress    Vijender Gupta    Bharatiya Janata Party    200710    YES
2    DL    NORTH EAST DELHI        Jai Prakash Agarwal    Indian National Congress    B.L.Sharma Prem    Bharatiya Janata Party    138816    NO
3    DL    EAST DELHI        Sandeep Dikshit    Indian National Congress    Chetan Chauhan    Bharatiya Janata Party    129779    NO
4    DL    NEW DELHI        Ajay Makan    Indian National Congress    Vijay Goel    Bharatiya Janata Party    134979    NO
5    DL    NORTH WEST DELHI        Krishna Tirath    Indian National Congress    Meera Kanwaria    Bharatiya Janata Party    176846    NO
6    DL    WEST DELHI        Mahabal Mishra    Indian National Congress    Prof. Jagdish Mukhi    Bharatiya Janata Party    129010    NO
7    DL    SOUTH DELHI        Ramesh Kumar    Indian National Congress    Ramesh Bidhuri    Bharatiya Janata Party    75232    NO
1    LD    LAKSHADWEEP        Muhammed Hamdulla Sayeed A.B    Indian National Congress    Dr. P. Pookunhikoya    Nationalist Congress Party    2198    YES
1    PY    PUDUCHERRY        Narayanasamy    Indian National Congress    Ramadass. M    Pattali Makkal Katchi    86301    NO

My 2009 prediction of the Sonia Congress election win

It is now coming up to be 3 pm Indian Standard Time on May 13, the last day of India’s 2009 General Elections, and there are two hours left for the polls to close.   I am happy to predict a big victory for the Congress Party, and Sonia Gandhi and her son Rahul will deserve congratulations for it.

How the victory takes shape is, I think, by their having won the median voter on both the economic and the secular-communal axes of Indian politics.  (See my 2008 published graph on the Median Voter Model in Indian politics, available elsewhere here).

I have met Sonia Gandhi once, in December 1991 at her home, where I gave her a tape of her husband’s conversations with me during the first Gulf War in 1991.   Her son and I met momentarily in her husband’s office in 1990-1991 but I do not recall any conversation.   I have had nothing to do with her Government.   Dr Manmohan Singh and I have met twice, once in Paris in the autumn of 1973 and once in Washington in September 1993; on the latter occasion, I was introduced to him and his key aides by Siddhartha Shankar Ray as the person on whose laptop the Congress manifesto of 1991 had been composed for Rajiv, something described elsewhere here.   (I also gave him then a copy of the published book that emerged from the University of  Hawaii perestroika-for-India project, Foundations of India’s Political Economy: Towards an Agenda for the 1990s, edited by myself and WE James.)  On the former occasion,  Dr Singh had kindly acceded to my father’s request to visit our then-home to advise me on economics before I started as a freshman undergraduate at the London School of Economics.

In May 2004 I was interviewed by BBC television in England and I praised the UPA in prospect — in comparison  to the horrors of the Vajpayee-Advani regime (including my personal experience of it, when their Education Minister had sent an astrology-believing acolyte to supposedly run a scientific/technical institute).

Since 2005, especially in the columns of The Statesman, I have dispensed rational criticism of the UPA Government as harshly as I have criticised the BJP/RSS and the Communists.  Principally, I believe they have got  some (perhaps most) much of their  economics (quite badly) wrong as well as their jurisprudence and foreign policy; they have also been willingly under the influence of the powerful organised lobbies and interest groups that populate our capital cities.

Even so, I think there is a large electoral victory in prospect for the Congress, and I send them my early congratulations.  They have done enough by way of political rhetoric and political reality to maintain or enhance their vote-share; their oppositions on either side have both failed badly. The BJP may make some marginal gains especially in Bihar but they have generally done enough to lose the day.  The CPM too will lose popularity especially in Bengal, and will never progress until they fire their JNU economists which they are never going to do.

So, Sonia-Rahul, well done!

But please try to improve your economics.

And, also, you simply must get Dr Manmohan Singh a seat in the Lok Sabha if he is to be PM — Ambedkar and Nehru and all their generation did not specify that India’s PM must be from the Lok Sabha because it was something totally OBVIOUS.

Subroto Roy

Postscript: Someone at a website has referred to my prediction above and remarked: “Perhaps the good doc is aware of the money in play”. The answer is no, I have absolutely no special information about any “money in play” on any side. My prediction is based on a layman’s observation of the campaign, as well as more specialised analysis of past voting data from the EC. In an earlier post, I pointed out the BJP had gotten some 17 million fewer votes than the Congress in 2004, and I asked if they had done enough to get enough of a net change in their favour. The answer I think is that they have not done so. To the contrary, I think there will be a quite large net change in favour of Congress thanks to a better-run and better-led campaign. Of course it is just a prediction that may be found to be incorrect.
SR

India’s 2009 General Elections: 2004 Distribution of the Raw Vote by Parliamentary Constituency in the 14th Lok Sabha

As the countdown begins to the end of the 2009 General Elections, those bored by the unending waffle from the talking-heads on TV may find of more interest some hard numbers from the previous General Elections in 2004 to the 14th Lok Sabha.

Excluding five constituencies, viz.,

ANDAMAN  NICOBAR ISLANDS-AN
CHANDIGARH-CH    DADRA  NAGAR HAVELI -DN
DAMAN AND DIU-DD    LAKSHADWEEP -LD

total valid votes for the remaining 538 Constituencies have been graphed and tabulated below:

totalvote2004byPC_21743_image001
SRIKAKULAM-AP    723,774
PARVATHIPURAM -AP    660,923
BOBBILI-AP    746,725
VISAKHAPATNAM-AP    965,740
BHADRACHALAM -AP    823,415
ANAKAPALLI-AP    782,106
KAKINADA-AP    832,284
RAJAHMUNDRY-AP    816,125
AMALAPURAM -AP    704,224
NARASAPUR-AP    768,537
ELURU-AP    896,946
MACHILIPATNAM-AP    755,314
VIJAYAWADA-AP    945,550
TENALI-AP    673,462
GUNTUR-AP    821,478
BAPATLA-AP    735,462
NARASARAOPET-AP    899,784
ONGOLE-AP    799,109
NELLORE -AP    836,502
TIRUPATHI -AP    850,787
CHITTOOR-AP    875,992
RAJAMPET-AP    691,329
CUDDAPAH-AP    819,201
HINDUPUR-AP    868,063
ANANTAPUR-AP    875,135
KURNOOL-AP    818,809
NANDYAL-AP    829,976
NAGARKURNOOL -AP    883,350
MAHABUBNAGAR-AP    866,550
HYDERABAD-AP    986,737
SECUNDERABAD-AP    973,288
SIDDIPET -AP    1,119,814
MEDAK-AP    901,015
NIZAMABAD-AP    782,439
ADILABAD-AP    831,337
PEDDAPALLI -AP    939,450
KARIMNAGAR-AP    874,498
HANAMKONDA-AP    831,926
WARANGAL-AP    921,872
KHAMMAM-AP    1,023,177
NALGONDA-AP    1,047,866
MIRYALGUDA-AP    962,599
ARUNACHAL WEST-AR    221,554
ARUNACHAL EAST-AR    163,374
KARIMGANJ -AS    671,491
SILCHAR-AS    608,233
AUTONOMOUS DIRICT -AS    401,377
DHUBRI-AS    863,592
KOKRAJHAR -AS    966,987
BARPETA-AS    762,681
GAUHATI-AS    881,775
MANGALDOI-AS    848,938
TEZPUR-AS    719,768
NOWGONG-AS    786,069
KALIABOR-AS    763,083
JORHAT-AS    666,835
DIBRUGARH-AS    631,240
LAKHIMPUR-AS    800,020
BAGAHA -BR    570,822
BETTIAH-BR    569,909
MOTIHARI-BR    679,090
GOPALGANJ-BR    694,492
SIWAN-BR    637,549
MAHARAJGANJ-BR    664,434
CHAPRA-BR    446,101
HAJIPUR -BR    773,597
VAISHALI-BR    748,759
MUZAFFARPUR-BR    784,096
SITAMARHI-BR    690,851
SHEOHAR-BR    666,398
MADHUBANI-BR    695,146
JHANJHARPUR-BR    704,243
DARBHANGA-BR    762,657
ROSERA -BR    713,798
SAMASTIPUR-BR    864,746
BARH-BR    864,102
BALIA-BR    632,343
SAHARSA-BR    738,280
MADHEPURA-BR    695,674
ARARIA -BR    652,439
KISHANGANJ-BR    813,315
PURNEA-BR    709,015
KATIHAR-BR    704,449
BANKA-BR    713,888
BHAGALPUR-BR    757,287
KHAGARIA-BR    676,017
MONGHYR-BR    838,216
BEGUSARAI-BR    678,667
NALANDA-BR    895,116
PATNA-BR    901,616
ARRAH-BR    787,399
BUXAR-BR    649,158
SASARAM -BR    697,268
BIKRAMGANJ-BR    733,986
AURANGABAD-BR    767,238
JAHANABAD-BR    863,843
NAWADA -BR    1,010,037
GAYA -BR    883,403
PANAJI-GA    254,819
MORMUGAO-GA    297,678
KUTCH-GJ    459,043
SURENDRANAGAR-GJ    455,554
JAMNAGAR-GJ    433,441
RAJKOT-GJ    538,626
PORBANDAR-GJ    490,480
JUNAGADH-GJ    658,706
AMRELI-GJ    475,646
BHAVNAGAR-GJ    444,831
DHANDHUKA -GJ    516,553
AHMEDABAD-GJ    548,559
GANDHINAGAR-GJ    845,576
MEHSANA-GJ    695,407
PATAN -GJ    538,157
BANASKANTHA-GJ    642,355
SABARKANTHA-GJ    654,471
KAPADVANJ-GJ    595,314
DOHAD -GJ    517,845
GODHRA-GJ    537,381
KAIRA-GJ    450,929
ANAND-GJ    591,240
CHHOTA UDAIPUR -GJ    556,516
BARODA-GJ    652,409
BROACH-GJ    680,795
SURAT-GJ    896,276
MANDVI -GJ    644,812
BULSAR -GJ    689,982
AMBALA -HR    847,725
KURUKSHETRA-HR    850,858
KARNAL-HR    818,927
SONEPAT-HR    737,119
ROHTAK-HR    662,049
FARIDABAD-HR    844,718
MAHENDRAGARH-HR    849,305
BHIWANI-HR    871,144
HISSAR-HR    769,851
SIRSA -HR    841,682
SIMLA -HP    528,655
MANDI-HP    669,552
KANGRA-HP    643,177
HAMIRPUR-HP    654,102
BARAMULLA-JK    334,770
SRINAGAR-JK    194,425
ANANTNAG-JK    150,219
LADAKH-JK    128,931
UDHAMPUR-JK    608,074
JAMMU-JK    821,670
BIDAR -KA    815,792
GULBARGA-KA    827,894
RAICHUR-KA    825,096
KOPPAL-KA    894,082
BELLARY-KA    950,328
DAVANGERE-KA    910,398
CHITRADURGA-KA    918,905
TUMKUR-KA    863,743
CHIKBALLAPUR-KA    931,128
KOLAR -KA    909,264
KANAKAPURA-KA    1,552,416
BANGALORE NORTH-KA    1,156,845
BANGALORE SOUTH-KA    800,649
MANDYA-KA    857,564
CHAMARAJANAGAR -KA    853,214
MYSORE-KA    957,267
MANGALORE-KA    791,572
UDUPI-KA    780,356
HASSAN-KA    912,195
CHIKMAGALUR-KA    819,254
SHIMOGA-KA    887,290
KANARA-KA    833,932
DHARWAD SOUTH-KA    864,810
DHARWAD NORTH-KA    810,552
BELGAUM-KA    893,902
CHIKKODI -KA    838,005
BAGALKOT-KA    868,472
BIJAPUR-KA    789,734
KASARAGOD-KL    901,603
CANNANORE-KL    860,998
BADAGARA-KL    828,533
CALICUT-KL    781,184
MANJERI-KL    907,283
PONNANI-KL    730,339
PALGHAT-KL    820,856
OTTAPALAM -KL    806,835
TRICHUR-KL    687,705
MUKUNDAPURAM-KL    723,009
ERNAKULAM-KL    658,916
MUVATTUPUZHA-KL    745,871
KOTTAYAM-KL    705,776
IDUKKI-KL    729,426
ALLEPPEY-KL    730,096
MAVELIKARA-KL    644,614
ADOOR -KL    684,434
QUILON-KL    705,482
CHIRAYINKIL-KL    669,639
TRIVANDRUM-KL    763,829
MORENA -MP    487,443
BHIND-MP    606,358
GWALIOR-MP    564,692
GUNA-MP    668,393
SAGAR -MP    479,443
KHAJURAHO-MP    772,442
DAMOH-MP    591,218
SATNA-MP    610,602
REWA-MP    630,747
SIDHI -MP    457,209
SHAHDOL -MP    509,340
BALAGHAT-MP    609,321
MANDLA -MP    588,269
JABALPUR-MP    571,395
SEONI-MP    599,553
CHHINDWARA-MP    754,637
BETUL-MP    547,702
HOSHANGABAD-MP    634,343
BHOPAL-MP    858,463
VIDISHA-MP    656,555
RAJGARH-MP    599,229
SHAJAPUR -MP    720,241
KHANDWA-MP    605,295
KHARGONE-MP    652,254
DHAR -MP    703,372
INDORE-MP    854,503
UJJAIN -MP    720,780
JHABUA -MP    628,903
MANDSAUR-MP    776,538
RAJAPUR-MH    480,535
RATNAGIRI-MH    560,976
KOLABA-MH    793,445
MUMBAI SOUTH-MH    274,358
MUMBAI SOUTH CENTRAL-MH    347,972
MUMBAI NORTH CENTRAL-MH    514,593
MUMBAI NORTH EAST-MH    925,659
MUMBAI NORTH WEST-MH    747,687
MUMBAI NORTH-MH    1,119,342
THANE-MH    1,313,252
DAHANU -MH    683,353
NASHIK-MH    656,525
MALEGAON -MH    590,772
DHULE -MH    455,571
NANDURBAR -MH    639,907
ERANDOL-MH    609,800
JALGAON-MH    616,969
BULDHANA -MH    761,264
AKOLA-MH    735,372
WASHIM-MH    720,723
AMRAVATI-MH    676,421
RAMTEK-MH    647,483
NAGPUR-MH    792,451
BHANDARA-MH    680,476
CHIMUR-MH    775,523
CHANDRAPUR-MH    841,144
WARDHA-MH    626,105
YAVATMAL-MH    663,978
HINGOLI-MH    728,325
NANDED-MH    800,145
PARBHANI-MH    675,985
JALNA-MH    756,365
AURANGABAD-MH    912,571
BEED-MH    884,234
LATUR-MH    822,355
OSMANABAD -MH    637,933
SHOLAPUR-MH    656,801
PANDHARPUR -MH    689,127
AHMEDNAGAR-MH    687,722
KOPARGAON-MH    668,700
KHED-MH    732,045
PUNE-MH    769,018
BARAMATI-MH    893,331
SATARA-MH    675,012
KARAD-MH    714,523
SANGLI-MH    692,999
ICHALKARANJI-MH    791,087
KOLHAPUR-MH    813,344
INNER MANIPUR-MN    416,406
OUTER MANIPUR -MN    619,151
SHILLONG-ML    367,780
TURA-ML    311,113
MIZORAM -MZ    348,546
NAGALAND-NL    954,719
MAYURBHANJ -OR    695,997
BALASORE-OR    947,569
BHADRAK -OR    932,276
JAJPUR -OR    876,208
KENDRAPARA-OR    836,265
CUTTACK-OR    820,302
JAGATSINGHPUR-OR    926,511
PURI-OR    888,955
BHUBANESWAR-OR    853,005
ASKA-OR    680,381
BERHAMPUR-OR    719,379
KORAPUT -OR    735,667
NOWRANGPUR -OR    780,728
KALAHANDI-OR    754,128
PHULBANI -OR    787,293
BOLANGIR-OR    728,378
SAMBALPUR-OR    810,601
DEOGARH-OR    823,301
DHENKANAL-OR    790,367
SUNDARGARH -OR    732,351
KEONJHAR -OR    814,662
GURDASPUR-PB    785,834
AMRITSAR-PB    711,820
TARN TARAN-PB    717,375
JULLUNDUR-PB    741,739
PHILLAUR -PB    722,537
HOSHIARPUR-PB    655,691
ROPAR -PB    790,221
PATIALA-PB    874,131
LUDHIANA-PB    869,927
SANGRUR-PB    836,818
BHATINDA -PB    763,195
FARIDKOT-PB    893,144
FEROZEPUR-PB    866,640
GANGANAGAR -RJ    722,938
BIKANER-RJ    1,077,364
CHURU-RJ    833,976
JHUNJHUNU-RJ    681,505
SIKAR-RJ    779,471
JAIPUR-RJ    881,075
DAUSA-RJ    716,901
ALWAR-RJ    542,876
BHARATPUR-RJ    576,987
BAYANA -RJ    490,633
SAWAI MADHOPUR -RJ    665,594
AJMER-RJ    529,549
TONK -RJ    594,358
KOTA-RJ    580,105
JHALAWAR-RJ    567,611
BANSWARA -RJ    666,098
SALUMBER -RJ    629,834
UDAIPUR-RJ    759,698
CHITTORGARH-RJ    672,477
BHILWARA-RJ    619,696
PALI-RJ    542,738
JALORE -RJ    655,868
BARMER-RJ    1,048,698
JODHPUR-RJ    864,927
NAGAUR-RJ    631,471
SIKKIM-SK    219,648
MADRAS NORTH-TN    915,865
MADRAS CENTRAL-TN    512,820
MADRAS SOUTH-TN    934,548
SRIPERUMBUDUR -TN    843,101
CHENGALPATTU-TN    759,076
ARAKKONAM-TN    775,439
VELLORE-TN    746,914
TIRUPPATTUR-TN    776,085
VANDAVASI-TN    703,269
TINDIVANAM-TN    726,923
CUDDALORE-TN    760,180
CHIDAMBARAM -TN    743,410
DHARMAPURI-TN    709,991
KRISHNAGIRI-TN    738,737
RASIPURAM -TN    695,976
SALEM-TN    741,437
TIRUCHENGODE-TN    864,451
NILGIRIS-TN    780,890
GOBICHETTIPALAYAM-TN    680,103
COIMBATORE-TN    878,866
POLLACHI -TN    642,999
PALANI-TN    695,442
DINDIGUL-TN    690,231
MADURAI-TN    739,680
PERIYAKULAM-TN    700,534
KARUR-TN    743,592
TIRUCHIRAPPALLI-TN    708,137
PERAMBALUR -TN    707,028
MAYILADUTURAI-TN    695,627
NAGAPATTINAM -TN    751,436
THANJAVUR-TN    708,724
PUDUKKOTTAI-TN    820,271
SIVAGANGA-TN    667,208
RAMANATHAPURAM-TN    674,387
SIVAKASI-TN    830,643
TIRUNELVELI-TN    633,782
TENKASI -TN    712,150
TIRUCHENDUR-TN    631,008
NAGERCOIL-TN    673,555
TRIPURA WEST-TR    701,159
TRIPURA EAST -TR    623,094
BIJNOR -UP    705,737
AMROHA-UP    885,159
MORADABAD-UP    655,175
RAMPUR-UP    810,596
SAMBHAL-UP    759,384
BUDAUN-UP    590,009
AONLA-UP    536,458
BAREILLY-UP    822,848
PILIBHIT-UP    677,107
SHAHJAHANPUR-UP    633,853
KHERI-UP    706,718
SHAHABAD-UP    579,629
SITAPUR-UP    596,569
MISRIKH -UP    550,849
HARDOI -UP    522,103
LUCKNOW-UP    578,556
MOHANLALGANJ -UP    571,879
UNNAO-UP    547,566
RAE BARELI-UP    643,560
PRATAPGARH-UP    572,548
AMETHI-UP    589,596
SULTANPUR-UP    721,049
AKBARPUR -UP    741,572
FAIZABAD-UP    686,599
BARA BANKI -UP    540,251
KAISERGANJ-UP    569,950
BAHRAICH-UP    549,537
BALRAMPUR-UP    698,106
GONDA-UP    606,654
BASTI -UP    576,404
DOMARIAGANJ-UP    643,129
KHALILABAD-UP    700,715
BANSGAON -UP    632,109
GORAKHPUR-UP    689,248
MAHARAJGANJ-UP    746,622
PADRAUNA-UP    790,050
DEORIA-UP    729,788
SALEMPUR-UP    669,623
BALLIA-UP    619,762
GHOSI-UP    721,582
AZAMGARH-UP    711,430
LALGANJ -UP    763,618
MACHHLISHAHR-UP    676,371
JAUNPUR-UP    713,014
SAIDPUR -UP    711,340
GHAZIPUR-UP    869,184
CHANDAULI-UP    704,435
VARANASI-UP    633,077
ROBERTSGANJ -UP    724,824
MIRZAPUR-UP    728,015
PHULPUR-UP    755,222
ALLAHABAD-UP    656,498
CHAIL -UP    555,376
FATEHPUR-UP    506,699
BANDA-UP    526,335
HAMIRPUR-UP    604,099
JHANSI-UP    819,646
JALAUN -UP    579,777
GHATAMPUR -UP    504,766
BILHAUR-UP    641,397
KANPUR-UP    618,721
ETAWAH-UP    703,946
KANNAUJ-UP    758,627
FARRUKHABAD-UP    665,435
MAINPURI-UP    719,918
JALESAR-UP    650,356
ETAH-UP    587,118
FIROZABAD -UP    531,363
AGRA-UP    642,719
MATHURA-UP    602,187
HATHRAS -UP    492,135
ALIGARH-UP    633,685
KHURJA -UP    600,704
BULANDSHAHR-UP    685,261
HAPUR-UP    799,736
MEERUT-UP    697,484
BAGHPAT-UP    656,900
MUZAFFARNAGAR-UP    862,408
KAIRANA-UP    816,726
SAHARANPUR-UP    990,415
COOCH BEHAR -WB    952,563
ALIPURDUARS -WB    840,836
JALPAIGURI-WB    890,105
DARJEELING-WB    888,083
RAIGANJ-WB    917,582
BALURGHAT -WB    925,631
MALDA-WB    849,111
JANGIPUR-WB    883,128
MURSHIDABAD-WB    1,007,221
BERHAMPORE-WB    991,515
KRISHNAGAR-WB    930,294
NABADWIP -WB    1,177,771
BARASAT-WB    1,153,160
BASIRHAT-WB    907,585
JOYNAGAR -WB    806,334
MATHURAPUR -WB    907,785
DIAMOND HARBOUR-WB    836,540
JADAVPUR-WB    1,022,315
BARRACKPORE-WB    794,426
DUM DUM-WB    1,248,360
CALCUTTA NORTH WEST-WB    360,117
CALCUTTA NORTH EAST-WB    568,885
CALCUTTA SOUTH-WB    772,742
HOWRAH-WB    911,632
ULUBERIA-WB    851,546
SERAMPORE-WB    946,248
HOOGHLY-WB    924,919
ARAMBAGH-WB    964,840
PANSKURA-WB    874,554
TAMLUK-WB    1,035,269
CONTAI-WB    926,774
MIDNAPORE-WB    908,499
JHARGRAM -WB    795,312
PURULIA-WB    696,219
BANKURA-WB    695,487
VISHNUPUR -WB    806,624
DURGAPUR -WB    847,616
ASANSOL-WB    725,198
BURDWAN-WB    997,024
KATWA-WB    966,263
BOLPUR-WB    770,059
BIRBHUM -WB    724,061
SURGUJA -CG    676,699
RAIGARH -CG    648,435
JANJGIR-CG    717,698
BILASPUR -CG    621,425
SARANGARH -CG    587,907
RAIPUR-CG    689,517
MAHASAMUND-CG    771,432
KANKER -CG    553,888
BAAR -CG    450,425
DURG-CG    761,815
RAJNANDGAON-CG    665,935
RAJMAHAL -JH    691,123
DUMKA -JH    625,118
GODDA-JH    831,356
CHATRA-JH    435,504
KODARMA-JH    825,710
GIRIDIH-JH    714,378
DHANBAD-JH    941,478
RANCHI-JH    695,754
JAMSHEDPUR-JH    776,519
SINGHBHUM -JH    520,155
KHUNTI -JH    490,772
LOHARDAGA -JH    466,464
PALAMAU -JH    641,543
HAZARIBAGH-JH    705,439
TEHRI GARHWAL-UK    561,428
GARHWAL-UK    503,240
ALMORA-UK    505,223
NAINITAL-UK    616,628
HARDWAR -UK    486,352
NEW DELHI-DL    202,557
SOUTH DELHI-DL    478,876
OUTER DELHI-DL    1,553,849
EAST DELHI-DL    1,190,814
CHANDNI CHOWK-DL    179,007
DELHI SADAR-DL    271,544
KAROL BAGH -DL    249,185
PONDICHERRY-PY    483,816
389,183,922

The outliers top and bottom reveal some oddities.  E.g., Outer Delhi  and  East Delhi  are among the highest yet  New Delhi, Delhi Sadar, Chandni Chowk among the lowest; Mumbai North among the highest, Mumbai South among the lowest; Dum Dum and Barasat among the highest, Calcutta North West among the lowest.

And who would have thought the Rajasthan desert would yield not one but two top outliers?

Hmmmmm.   Discontinuous behaviour is always curious.

We might wonder if the new constituencies after delimitation might show similar oddities.

SR

Mapping of Votes into Assembly Segments Won into Parliamentary Seats Won in the 2004 India Election

We in India shall soon be hearing the talking-heads on TV, mostly in New Delhi,  jabbering away about “swings” and “anti-incumbency” and “mandates” and “fractured mandates” etc.  Most of it will be waffle without any basis in hard facts because nobody wants to actually do any of the work necessary to acquire a serious opinion.

Just as you cannot win at cricket unless you bowl out the other side and you cannot win at soccer unless you score more goals than the other side, you are not going to win a General Election in India unless you win more Assembly Segments of Parliamentary Constituencies than your competitors.

It is not logically impossible but it is factually unlikely that you can lose, say, five out of six Assembly Segments and still win the Parliamentary Constituency by winning the sixth with a sufficiently large margin.  Raw votes generally translate into winning Assembly Segments and winning Assembly Segments generally translate into winning Lok Sabha seats.

In 2004, the top five winners were as follows, where the first number is raw votes won, the second the number of Assembly Segments won, and the third the number of Lok Sabha seats won:

INC    103,118,475    1,157    145
BJP    86,181,116    1,076    138
CPM    22,065,283    322    43
BSP    21,037,968    107    17
SP    16,822,902    167    39

Notice the BSP won some 4 million more raw votes than the SP but fewer Assembly Segments and fewer Lok Sabha Seats.  And the CPM won barely a million more raw votes than did the BSP but 215 more Assembly Segments and 26 more Lok Sabha seats.  Clearly Uttar Pradesh voting patterns need a lot more detailed analysis — my ex ante hypothesis would be that the BSP’s results are affected by the policy of some  constituencies being “reserved”.

More significantly, at the head of the race, notice that the BJP lost the raw vote to the Indian National Congress by a margin of almost 17 million votes which translated into winning 81 Assembly Segments fewer than the INC which translated into winning 7 fewer Lok Sabha seats — and hence ended up sitting in the Opposition in the Lok Sabha for five years.

A central question is whether the BJP has or has not done enough over the last five years to get in its favour a net change in the raw vote — and that too by a sufficient amount to change the number of Assembly Segments won in its favour.

Putting it differently, has the INC done enough to at least maintain its share of the raw-vote and its leading position, and hence  be likely to win the largest number of Assembly Segments and Lok Sabha seats again?

Here is the overall picture:

book1_17442_image001And yes, of course, there have been demographic changes over five years so those changed parameters shall have affected the  new outcome too (notice the INC’s emphasis on the “youth vote”).

This is original research which could come to be published in a scientific journal if I find the time to send it, so please try not to steal and instead acknowledge its source properly if you want to discuss it elsewhere.

Subroto Roy

India’s 2009 General Elections: How drastically will the vote-share of political parties change from 2004?

Close to 389 million valid votes were cast in India’s previous General Election in 2004 to the 14th Lok Sabha, according to  the Election Commission’s volume STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTIONS, 2004 TO THE 14th LOK SABHA VOLUME III (DETAILS FOR ASSEMBLY SEGMENTS OF PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES).

Unfortunately, the Election Commission, like the Government of India in general,  remains extremely uncomfortable with using  Excel or any spreadsheets at all, and hence much of the information they provide remains unproductive — reflecting, I am afraid,  rather obsolescent technology and organisation and management. From an Excel spreadsheet I have had to create for myself using EC data, my calculations give the following breakdown of the votes received in 2004 by most of the larger political parties:

2004 Lok Sabha Elections

ADMK    AllIndiaAnnaDravidaMunnetraKazhagam       8,547,014

AGP    AsomGanaParishad                    2,069,600

AIFB    AllIndiaForwardBloc                    1,365,055

AITC    AllIndiaTrinamoolCongress                    7,863,220

BJD    BijuJanataDal                    5,082,849

BJP    BharatiyaJanataParty                    86,181,116

BSP    BahujanSamajParty                    21,037,968

CPI    CommunistPartyofIndia                    5,484,111

CPI(ML)(L)    CommunistPartyofIndia(Marxist-Leninist)(Liberation)                    1,280,240

CPM    CommunistPartyofIndia(Marxist)                    22,065,283

DMK    DravidaMunnetraKazhagam                    7,064,393

INC    IndianNationalCongress                    103,118,475

IND    Independents                    16,523,857

INLD    IndianNationalLokDal                    1,918,943

JD(S)    JanataDal(Secular)                    5,732,296

JD(U)    JanataDal(United)                    9,129,366

JMM    JharkhandMuktiMorcha                    1,846,843

MDMK    MarumalarchiDravidaMunnetraKazhagam                    1,679,870

PMK    PattaliMakkalKatchi                    2,169,020

NCP    NationalistCongressParty                    7,019,236

RJD    RashtriyaJanataDal                    9,384,147

RLD    RashtriyaLokDal                    2,463,603

RSP    RevolutionarySocialistParty                    1,689,794

SAD    ShiromaniAkaliDal                    3,506,681

SHS    ShivSena                    7,050,432

SP    SamajwadiParty                    16,822,902

TDP    TeluguDesam                    11,844,811

TRS    TelanganaRashtraSamithi                    2,441,405

That accounts for 372,382,530.  The precise total of valid votes that I get by tabulating EC data using my spreadsheet is 388,920,557.  The EC itself reports in the very same document a total of 388,672,504.  The percentage difference is close enough to zero but it should be zero itself; I shall be delighted if my spreadsheet’s total is the incorrect one somehow, even though it uses the EC’s own data; but it does lead me to ask: “Who, if anyone, audits the Election Commission’s numerical calculations and vote tallies?  Why  is India’s ordinary public not informed about all this and other processes of the Election Commission perfectly transparently as a matter of routine?  Is reform necessary of the processes and procedures of the Election Commission itself?”.

(Incidentally, the slight discrepancy in the totals could have arisen perhaps because my spreadsheet does, correctly, include the relatively small number of postal ballots, whereas the EC’s total possibly has not done.)

Raw votes  like those described above do not of course translate directly into seats in Parliament but even so they indicate the state of popular political opinion in 2004. By how much will that popular opinion be found to have changed in 2009?  How will demographic changes, and the delimitation exercise that has redrawn constituencies, affect the new outcomes?  These are the kind of grown-up adult questions to ask  yourself if you get bored with the endless pretentious waffle that emerges from our talking-heads on TV  etc regarding the ongoing election.

Notice too the 16.5 million people of India who voted in 2004 for Independents!  What on earth has made Dr Manmohan Singh recently initiate an absurd debate against them?

Here below as well is the full list of  all parties that were in contention in 2004; if you want to know the vote-share any of them received according to my spreadsheet, send in a comment to this post and I shall try to respond.  Better still, look up the EC volume mentioned and create your own spreadsheet from its data, and tell me how accurate mine is.  (But beware, the spreadsheet will have some 60,000 rows to start with!)

Subroto Roy

List of parties in 2004

AB AkhandBharti

ABCD(A)    AkhilBharatiyaCongressDal(Ambedkar)

ABDBM    AkhilBharatiyaDeshBhaktMorcha

ABHM    AkhilBharatHinduMahasabha

ABHS    AkhilBharatiyaSena

ABJS    AkhilBharatiyaJanSangh

ABLTASJM    AkhilBharatiyaLokTantrikAlp-SankhyakJanMorcha

ABLTP    AkhilBharatiyaLoktantraParty

ABRAHP    AkhilBharatiyaRashtriyaAzadHindParty

ABRS    AkhilBharatiyaRajaryaSabha

AC    ArunachalCongress

AD    ApnaDal

ADMK    AllIndiaAnnaDravidaMunnetraKazhagam

AGP    AsomGanaParishad

AIFB    AllIndiaForwardBloc

AIMF    AllIndiaMinoritiesFront

AIMIM    AllIndiaMajlis-E-IttehadulMuslimeen

AITC    AllIndiaTrinamoolCongress

AJSU    AllJharkhandStudentsUnion

AKMDMP    AllKeralaM.G.R.DravidaMunnetraParty

AMB    AmraBangalee

ANC    AmbedkarNationalCongress

AP    AwamiParty

ARP    AmbedkaristRepublicanParty

ASDC    AutonomousStateDemandCommittee

ASP    AmbedkarSamajParty

BBM    BharipaBahujanMahasangha

BBP    BharatiyaBackwardParty

BED    BharatiyaEktaDal

BEP    BharatiyaEklavyaParty

BGTD    BharatiyaGaonTajDal

BJD    BijuJanataDal

BJP    BharatiyaJanataParty

BJVP    BharatiyaJanvadiParty

BKD    BahujanKisanDal

BKLJP    BharatKiLokJimmedarParty

BKRP    BharatKrantiRakshakParty

BLKD    BharatiyaLokKalyanDal

BLP    BharatiyaLabourParty

BMP(AI)    BharatiyaMuhabbatParty(AllIndia)

BMSM    BharatiyaMinoritiesSurakshaMahasangh

BMVP    BharatiyaManavataVikasParty

BNP    BharatiyaNavshaktiparty

BNRP    BharatiyaNagrikParty

BPSGKD    BharatiyaPrajatantrikShudhGandhiwadiKrishakDal

BPSP    BiharPeople’sParty

BPTP    BharatiyaPrajatantraParty

BRP    BharatiyaRashtravadiPaksha

BRPP    BharatiyaRepublicanPaksha

BSDP    BhartiSarvadarshiParishad

BSJM    BharatiyaSurajyaManch

BSK    BharatiyaSarvkalayanKrantiDal

BSP    BahujanSamajParty

BVP    BahujanVikasParty

CPI    CommunistPartyofIndia

CPI(ML)(L)    CommunistPartyofIndia(Marxist-Leninist)(Liberation)

CPM    CommunistPartyofIndia(Marxist)

CSP    ChhattisgarhiSamajParty

DBP    DeshBhaktParty

DBSP    DemocraticBharatiyaSamajParty

DMK    DravidaMunnetraKazhagam

EKD(UP)    EktaKrantiDalU.P.

ES    EktaShakti

EU    EphraimUnion

FCI    FederalCongressofIndia

FPM    FederalPartyofManipur

GGP    GondvanaGantantraParty

HEAP    HinduEktaAndolanParty

HJP    HindustanJantaParty

HM    HindMorcha

HVP    HaryanaVikasParty

IBSP    IndianBahujanSamajwadiParty

IFDP    IndianFederalDemocraticParty

IJP    IndianJusticeParty

INC    IndianNationalCongress

IND    Independent

INL    IndianNationalLeague

INLD    IndianNationalLokDal

JCP    JanChetnaParty

JD(S)    JanataDal(Secular)

JD(U)    JanataDal(United)

JDP    JharkhandDisomParty

JHP    JaiHindParty

JHSP    JanhitSamajParty

JJ    JebamaniJanata

JKAL    JammuAndKashmirAwamiLeague

JKN    Jammu&KashmirNationalConference

JKNPP    Jammu&KashmirNationalPanthersParty

JKP    JharkhandParty

JKP(N)    JharkhandParty(Naren)

JKPDP    Jammu&KashmirPeoplesDemocraticParty

JKPP    JharkhandPeople’sParty

JMM    JharkhandMuktiMorcha

JMP    JanmangalPaksh

JP    JanataParty

JSP    JansattaParty

JUM    JanaUnnayanMancha

JVP    JanataVikasParty

KEC    KeralaCongress

KEC(M)    KeralaCongress(M)

KKJHS    KrantiKariJaiHindSena

KMM    KrantikariManuwadiMorcha

KNDP    KannadaNaduParty

KSVP    KrantikariSamyavadiParty

KVSP    KosiVikasParty

LBP    LokBhalaiParty

LCP    LoktantrikChetnaParty

LJNSP    LokJanShaktiParty

LP(S)    LabourParty(Secular)

LPI(V)    LabourPartyOfIndia(V.V.Prasad)

LPSP    LokpriyaSamajParty

LRP    LokRajyaParty

LSD    LokSewaDal

LSWP    LoktantrikSamajwadiParty

MAG    MaharashtrawadiGomantak

MB(S)P    MoolBharati(S)Party

MBT    MajlisBachaoTahreek

MC    MominConference

MCO    MarxistCo-Ordination

MCPI(S)    MarxistCommunistPartyofIndia(S.S.Srivastava)

MDMK    MarumalarchiDravidaMunnetraKazhagam

MJM    ManavJagritiManch

MNF    MizoNationalFront

MNVP    ManuvadiParty

MPP    ManipurPeople’sParty

MRRC    MaharashtraRajivCongress

MRS    MudirajRashtriyaSamithi

MUL    MuslimLeagueKeralaStateCommittee

NBNP    NavbharatNirmanParty

NCP    NationalistCongressParty

NLP    NationalLoktantrikParty

NMNP    NidayaMalik(N)Party

NPF    NagalandPeoplesFront

NPF    NagalandPeoplesFront

NSP    NationalStudentsParty

NSSP    NiswarthSewaParty

NSTP    NaariShaktiParty

NTRTDP(LP)    NTRTeluguDesamParty(LakshmiParvathi)

PBLP    PhuleBhartiLokParty

PBRML    PaschimBangaRajyaMuslimLeague

PDP    PeoplesDemocraticParty

PDS    PartyforDemocraticSocialism

PHSP    PichhraSamajParty

PMK    PattaliMakkalKatchi

PMP    ParmarthParty

PMSP    PragatisheelManavSamajParty

PP    PrajaParty

PPOI    PyramidPartyofIndia

PRBP    PeoplesRepublicanParty

PRCP    PrabuddhaRepublicanParty

PRP    PanchayatRajParty

PSJP    ParivartanSamajParty

PTSS    ProutistSarvaSamajParty

PWPI    PeasantsAndWorkersPartyofIndia

RCP    RashtravadiCommunistParty

RCPI(R)    RevolutionaryCommunistPartyofIndia(RasikBhatt)

RGD    RashtriyaGaribDal

RHD    RashtriyaHamaraDal

RJAP    RashtriyaJanadhikarParty

RJD    RashtriyaJanataDal

RJVP    RajasthanVikasParty

RKSP    RashtriyaKrantikariSamajwadiParty

RLD    RashtriyaLokDal

RLD    RashtriyaLokDal

RLSM    RashtriyaLokSevaMorcha

RPD    RashtriyaParivartanDal

RPI    RepublicanPartyofIndia

RPI(A)    RepublicanPartyofIndia(A)

RPI(D)    RepublicanPartyOfIndia(Democratic)

RPI(KH)    RepublicanPartyOfIndia(Khobragade)

RSBP    RashtriyaSwabhimaanParty

RSD    RashtriyaSawarnDal

RSGP    RashtriyaGarimaParty

RSKP    RashtriyaSakarParty

RSMD    RashtriyaSamantaDal

RSNP    RashtriyaSamajikNayakPaksha

RSP    RevolutionarySocialistParty

RSP    RevolutionarySocialistParty

RSPS    RashtriyaSamajPaksha

RVNP    RashtravadiJanataParty

RVP    RashtriyaVikasParty

SAD    ShiromaniAkaliDal

SAD(M)    ShiromaniAkaliDal(SimranjitSinghMann)

SAP    SamataParty

SBS    ShikshitBerozgarSena

SBSP    SuheldevBhartiyaSamajParty

SDF    SikkimDemocraticFront

SDP    SocialisticDemocraticParty

SHRP    SikkimHimaliRajyaParishad

SHS    Shivsena

SHS    Shivsena

SHSP    ShoshitSamajParty

SJP(R)    SamajwadiJanataParty(Rashtriya)

SLAP    SocialActionParty

SLP(L)    SocialistParty(Lohia)

SMSP    SamataSamajParty

SP    SamajwadiParty

SP    SamajwadiParty

SPI    SecularPartyofIndia

SPVD    SampurnaVikasDal

SSD    ShoshitSamajDal

SSJP    SanatanSamajParty

SSP    SikkimSangramParishad

SVRP    ShivrajyaParty

SVSP    SavarnSamajParty

SWD    SwarajDal

SWJP    SamajwadiJanParishad

TDK    TamilDesiyakKatchi

TDP    TeluguDesam

TNGP    TrinamoolGanaParishad

TRS    TelanganaRashtraSamithi

UGDP    UnitedGoansDemocraticParty

UKKD    UttarakhandKrantiDal

UMFA    UnitedMinoritiesFront,Assam

USYP    UrsSamyukthaPaksha

VJC    VidharbhaJanataCongress

VJP    VijetaParty

VP    VikasParty

VRP    VidharbhaRajyaParty

YGP    YuvaGantantraParty

YSP    YouthandStudentsParty

A Dozen Grown-Up Questions for Indian Politicians Dreaming of Becoming/Deciding India’s PM After the 2009 General Elections

The 2009 General Election campaign is supposed to elect a Parliament and a Head of Government for the Republic of India, not a Head Boy/Head Girl at an urban middle-class high school or the karta of a joint family. Unfortunately, our comprador national-level media seem to be docile  and juvenile enough in face of power and privilege to want to ask only touchy-feely koochi-woochi pretty baby questions of the “candidates” for PM (several of whom are not even running as candidates for the Lok Sabha but still seem to want to be PM).   Rival candidates themselves seem to want to hurl invective and innuendo at one another, as if all this was merely some public squabble between Delhi middle-class families.

So here are a set of grown-up adult questions instead:

1. Pakistan is politically and strategically our most important neighbour. Can you assure the country that a government headed by you will have a coherent policy on both war and peace with Pakistan? How would you achieve it?

2. Do you agree with the Reagan-Gorbachev opinion that “a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought”? If so, what would your Government do about it?

3. If there are Indian citizens in Jammu & Kashmir presently governed by Article 370 who wish to renounce Indian nationality and remain stateless or become Pakistani/Afghan/Iranian citizens instead, would you consider letting them do so and giving them Indian “green cards” for peaceful permanent residence in J&K and India as a whole?

4. Do you know where Chumbi Valley is? If so, would your Government consider reviving the decades-old idea with China to mutually exchange permanent leases to Aksai Chin and Chumbi Valley respectively?

5. Nuclear power presently accounts as a source of about 4% of total Indian electricity; do you agree that even if nuclear power capacity alone increased by 100% over the next ten years and all other sources of electricity remained constant, nuclear power would still account for less than 8% of the total?

6. The public debt of the country  may now amount to something like Rs 30 lakh crore (Rs 30 trillion); do you find that worrisome? If so, why so? If not, why not?

7. The Government of India may be paying something like Rs 3 lakh crore (Rs 3 trillion) annually on interest payments on its debt;  do you agree that tends to suck dry every public budget even before it can try to do something worthwhile?

8.  If our money supply growth is near 22% per annum, and the rate of growth of real income is near 7% per annum, would you agree the decline in the value of money (i.e., the rate of inflation) could be as high as 15% per annum?

9. Do you agree that giving poor people direct income subsidies is a far better way to help them than by distorting market prices for everybody? If not, why not?

10. How would you seek to improve the working of  (and reduce the corruption in) the following public institutions: (1) the Army and paramilitary; (2) the Judiciary and Police; (3) Universities and technical institutes?

11. There has never been a Prime Minister in any parliamentary democracy in the world throughout the 20th Century who was also not an elected member of the Lower House; do you agree BR Ambedkar and Jawaharlal Nehru intended that for the Republic of India as well and thought it  something so obvious as  not necessary to specify in the 1950 Constitution?  What will your Government do to improve the working of the Presidency, the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and State Assemblies?

12. What, personally, is your vision for India after a five-year period of a Government led by you?

Subroto Roy,

Citizen & Voter

Posted in 15th Lok Sabha, Academic research, Afghanistan, Air warfare, Aksai Chin, BR Ambedkar, China's expansionism, China-India Relations, Chumbi Valley, India's 2009 General Election, India's Army, India's Banking, India's Budget, India's bureaucracy, India's Constitution, India's constitutional politics, India's Democracy, India's Diplomacy, India's Economy, India's education, India's Election Commission, India's Electorate, India's Foreign Policy, India's Government Budget Constraint, India's Government Expenditure, India's higher education, India's History, India's inflation, India's Judiciary, India's Lok Sabha, India's Macroeconomics, India's Monetary & Fiscal Policy, India's nomenclatura, India's Personality Cults, India's political lobbyists, India's political parties, India's Politics, India's Polity, India's pork-barrel politics, India's poverty, India's Presidency, India's private TV channels, India's Public Finance, India's Rajya Sabha, India's Reserve Bank, India's Rule of Law, India's State Finances, India's Supreme Court, India's Union-State relations, India-China relations, India-Pakistan cooperation against terrorism, India-Pakistan naval cooperation, India-Pakistan peace process, India-Tibet Border, India-United States business, India-US Nuclear Deal, International diplomacy, Iran, Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir in international law, Jawaharlal Nehru, Just war, Laddakh, Land and political economy, LK Advani, Manmohan Singh, Pakistan's murder of Indian POWs, Pakistan's terrorist masterminds, Pakistan's terrorist training institutes, Pakistan, Balochistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistani expansionism, Press and Media, Sonia Gandhi, Stonewalling in politics, Voting, War. Leave a Comment »

India’s 2009 General Elections: Delimitation and the Different Lists of 543 Lok Sabha Constituencies in 2009 and 2004

The Election Commission of India makes it very hard to obtain any really productive data but it is still possible to do so with adequate effort.  Here may be the first list to be published anywhere in the public domain in India during this electoral season comparing the different 543 Lok Sabha constituencies in 2009 and 2004.

Enjoy!

Subroto Roy

(And watch this space for the much longer lists of the differences between the Lok Sabha constituencies in their different “Assembly segments”, i.e. the impact of delimitation.)

2009 Lok Sabha Constituencies 2004 Lok Sabha Constituencies
1 AP ADILABAD AP 1 SRIKAKULAM
2 AP PEDDAPALLE AP 2 PARVATHIPURAM
3 AP KARIMNAGAR AP 3 BOBBILI
4 AP NIZAMABAD AP 4 VISAKHAPATNAM
5 AP ZAHIRABAD AP 5 BHADRACHALAM
6 AP MEDAK AP 6 ANAKAPALLI
7 AP MALKAJGIRI AP 7 KAKINADA
8 AP SECUNDRABAD AP 8 RAJAHMUNDRY
9 AP HYDERABAD AP 9 AMALAPURAM
10 AP CHELVELLA AP 10 NARASAPUR
11 AP MAHBUBNAGAR AP 11 ELURU
12 AP NAGARKURNOOL AP 12 MACHILIPATNAM
13 AP NALGONDA AP 13 VIJAYAWADA
14 AP BHONGIR AP 14 TENALI
15 AP WARANGAL AP 15 GUNTUR
16 AP MAHABUBABAD AP 16 BAPATLA
17 AP KHAMMAM AP 17 NARASARAOPET
18 AP ARUKU AP 18 ONGOLE
19 AP SRIKAKULAM AP 19 NELLORE
20 AP VIZIANAGARAM AP 20 TIRUPATHI
21 AP VISAKHAPATNAM AP 21 CHITTOOR
22 AP ANAKAPALLI AP 22 RAJAMPET
23 AP KAKINADA AP 23 CUDDAPAH
24 AP AMALAPURAM AP 24 HINDUPUR
25 AP RAJAHMUNDRY AP 25 ANANTAPUR
26 AP NARSAPURAM AP 26 KURNOOL
27 AP ELURU AP 27 NANDYAL
28 AP MACHILIPATNAM AP 28 NAGARKURNOOL
29 AP VIJAYAWADA AP 29 MAHABUBNAGAR
30 AP GUNTUR AP 30 HYDERABAD
31 AP NARASARAOPET AP 31 SECUNDERABAD
32 AP BAPATLA AP 32 SIDDIPET
33 AP ONGOLE AP 33 MEDAK
34 AP NANDYAL AP 34 NIZAMABAD
35 AP KURNOOL AP 35 ADILABAD
36 AP ANANTAPUR AP 36 PEDDAPALLI
37 AP HINDUPUR AP 37 KARIMNAGAR
38 AP KADAPA AP 38 HANAMKONDA
39 AP NELLORE AP 39 WARANGAL
40 AP TIRUPATI AP 40 KHAMMAM
41 AP RAJAMPET AP 41 NALGONDA
42 AP CHITTOOR AP 42 MIRYALGUDA
1 AR ARUNACHAL WEST AR 1 ARUNACHAL WEST
2 AR ARUNACHAL EAST AR 2 ARUNACHAL EAST
1 AS KARIMGANJ AS 1 KARIMGANJ
2 AS SILCHAR AS 2 SILCHAR
3 AS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT AS 3 AUTONOMOUS DIRICT
4 AS DHUBRI AS 4 DHUBRI
5 AS KOKRAJHAR AS 5 KOKRAJHAR
6 AS BARPETA AS 6 BARPETA
7 AS GAUHATI AS 7 GAUHATI
8 AS MANGALDOI AS 8 MANGALDOI
9 AS TEZPUR AS 9 TEZPUR
10 AS NOWGONG AS 10 NOWGONG
11 AS KALIABOR AS 11 KALIABOR
12 AS JORHAT AS 12 JORHAT
13 AS DIBRUGARH AS 13 DIBRUGARH
14 AS LAKHIMPUR AS 14 LAKHIMPUR
1 BR VALMIKI NAGAR BR 1 BAGAHA
2 BR PASCHIM CHAMPARAN BR 2 BETTIAH
3 BR PURVI CHAMPARAN BR 3 MOTIHARI
4 BR SHEOHAR BR 4 GOPALGANJ
5 BR SITAMARHI BR 5 SIWAN
6 BR MADHUBANI BR 6 MAHARAJGANJ
7 BR JHANJHARPUR BR 7 CHAPRA
8 BR SUPAUL BR 8 HAJIPUR
9 BR ARARIA BR 9 VAISHALI
10 BR KISHANGANJ BR 10 MUZAFFARPUR
11 BR KATIHAR BR 11 SITAMARHI
12 BR PURNIA BR 12 SHEOHAR
13 BR MADHEPURA BR 13 MADHUBANI
14 BR DARBHANGA BR 14 JHANJHARPUR
15 BR MUZAFFARPUR BR 15 DARBHANGA
16 BR VAISHALI BR 16 ROSERA
17 BR GOPALGANJ BR 17 SAMASTIPUR
18 BR SIWAN BR 18 BARH
19 BR MAHARAJGANJ BR 19 BALIA
20 BR SARAN BR 20 SAHARSA
21 BR HAJIPUR BR 21 MADHEPURA
22 BR UJIARPUR BR 22 ARARIA
23 BR SAMASTIPUR BR 23 KISHANGANJ
24 BR BEGUSARAI BR 24 PURNEA
25 BR KHAGARIA BR 25 KATIHAR
26 BR BHAGALPUR BR 26 BANKA
27 BR BANKA BR 27 BHAGALPUR
28 BR MUNGER BR 28 KHAGARIA
29 BR NALANDA BR 29 MONGHYR
30 BR PATNA SAHIB BR 30 BEGUSARAI
31 BR PATALIPUTRA BR 31 NALANDA
32 BR ARRAH BR 32 PATNA
33 BR BUXAR BR 33 ARRAH
34 BR SASARAM BR 34 BUXAR
35 BR KARAKAT BR 35 SASARAM
36 BR JAHANABAD BR 36 BIKRAMGANJ
37 BR AURANGABAD BR 37 AURANGABAD
38 BR GAYA BR 38 JAHANABAD
39 BR NAWADA BR 39 NAWADA
40 BR JAMUI BR 40 GAYA
1 GA NORTH GOA GA 1 PANAJI
2 GA SOUTH GOA GA 2 MORMUGAO
1 GJ KACHCHH GJ 1 KUTCH
2 GJ BANASKANTHA GJ 2 SURENDRANAGAR
3 GJ PATAN GJ 3 JAMNAGAR
4 GJ MAHESANA GJ 4 RAJKOT
5 GJ SABARKANTHA GJ 5 PORBANDAR
6 GJ GANDHINAGAR GJ 6 JUNAGADH
7 GJ AHMEDABAD EAST GJ 7 AMRELI
8 GJ AHMEDABAD WEST GJ 8 BHAVNAGAR
9 GJ SURENDRANAGAR GJ 9 DHANDHUKA
10 GJ RAJKOT GJ 10 AHMEDABAD
11 GJ PORBANDAR GJ 11 GANDHINAGAR
12 GJ JAMNAGAR GJ 12 MEHSANA
13 GJ JUNAGADH GJ 13 PATAN
14 GJ AMRELI GJ 14 BANASKANTHA
15 GJ BHAVNAGAR GJ 15 SABARKANTHA
16 GJ ANAND GJ 16 KAPADVANJ
17 GJ KHEDA GJ 17 DOHAD
18 GJ PANCHMAHAL GJ 18 GODHRA
19 GJ DAHOD GJ 19 KAIRA
20 GJ VADODARA GJ 20 ANAND
21 GJ CHHOTA UDAIPUR GJ 21 CHHOTA UDAIPUR
22 GJ BHARUCH GJ 22 BARODA
23 GJ BARDOLI GJ 23 BROACH
24 GJ SURAT GJ 24 SURAT
25 GJ NAVSARI GJ 25 MANDVI
26 GJ VALSAD GJ 26 BULSAR
1 HR AMBALA HR 1 AMBALA
2 HR KURUKSHETRA HR 2 KURUKSHETRA
3 HR SIRSA HR 3 KARNAL
4 HR HISAR HR 4 SONEPAT
5 HR KARNAL HR 5 ROHTAK
6 HR SONIPAT HR 6 FARIDABAD
7 HR ROHTAK HR 7 MAHENDRAGARH
8 HR BHIWANI-MAHENDRAGARH HR 8 BHIWANI
9 HR GURGAON HR 9 HISSAR
10 HR FARIDABAD HR 10 SIRSA
1 HP KANGRA HP 1 SIMLA
2 HP MANDI HP 2 MANDI
3 HP HAMIRPUR HP 3 KANGRA
4 HP SHIMLA HP 4 HAMIRPUR
1 JK BARAMULLA JK 1 BARAMULLA
2 JK SRINAGAR JK 2 SRINAGAR
3 JK ANANTNAG JK 3 ANANTNAG
4 JK LADAKH JK 4 LADAKH
5 JK UDHAMPUR JK 5 UDHAMPUR
6 JK JAMMU JK 6 JAMMU
1 KA CHIKKODI KA 1 BIDAR
2 KA BELGAUM KA 2 GULBARGA
3 KA BAGALKOT KA 3 RAICHUR
4 KA BIJAPUR KA 4 KOPPAL
5 KA GULBARGA KA 5 BELLARY
6 KA RAICHUR KA 6 DAVANGERE
7 KA BIDAR KA 7 CHITRADURGA
8 KA KOPPAL KA 8 TUMKUR
9 KA BELLARY KA 9 CHIKBALLAPUR
10 KA HAVERI KA 10 KOLAR
11 KA DHARWAD KA 11 KANAKAPURA
12 KA UTTARA KANNADA KA 12 BANGALORE NORTH
13 KA DAVANAGERE KA 13 BANGALORE SOUTH
14 KA SHIMOGA KA 14 MANDYA
15 KA UDUPI CHIKMAGALUR KA 15 CHAMARAJANAGAR
16 KA HASSAN KA 16 MYSORE
17 KA DAKSHINA KANNADA KA 17 MANGALORE
18 KA CHITRADURGA KA 18 UDUPI
19 KA TUMKUR KA 19 HASSAN
20 KA MANDYA KA 20 CHIKMAGALUR
21 KA MYSORE KA 21 SHIMOGA
22 KA CHAMARAJANAGAR KA 22 KANARA
23 KA BANGALORE RURAL KA 23 DHARWAD SOUTH
24 KA BANGALORE NORTH KA 24 DHARWAD NORTH
25 KA BANGALORE CENTRAL KA 25 BELGAUM
26 KA BANGALORE SOUTH KA 26 CHIKKODI
27 KA CHIKKBALLAPUR KA 27 BAGALKOT
28 KA KOLAR KA 28 BIJAPUR
1 KL KASARAGOD KL 1 KASARAGOD
2 KL KANNUR KL 2 CANNANORE
3 KL VADAKARA KL 3 BADAGARA
4 KL WAYANAD KL 4 CALICUT
5 KL KOZHIKODE KL 5 MANJERI
6 KL MALAPPURAM KL 6 PONNANI
7 KL PONNANI KL 7 PALGHAT
8 KL PALAKKAD KL 8 OTTAPALAM
9 KL ALATHUR KL 9 TRICHUR
10 KL THRISSUR KL 10 MUKUNDAPURAM
11 KL CHALAKUDY KL 11 ERNAKULAM
12 KL ERNAKULAM KL 12 MUVATTUPUZHA
13 KL IDUKKI KL 13 KOTTAYAM
14 KL KOTTAYAM KL 14 IDUKKI
15 KL ALAPPUZHA KL 15 ALLEPPEY
16 KL MAVELIKKARA KL 16 MAVELIKARA
17 KL PATHANAMTHITTA KL 17 ADOOR
18 KL KOLLAM KL 18 QUILON
19 KL ATTINGAL KL 19 CHIRAYINKIL
20 KL THIRUVANANTHAPURAM KL 20 TRIVANDRUM
1 MP MORENA MP 1 MORENA
2 MP BHIND MP 2 BHIND
3 MP GWALIOR MP 3 GWALIOR
4 MP GUNA MP 4 GUNA
5 MP SAGAR MP 5 SAGAR
6 MP TIKAMGARH MP 6 KHAJURAHO
7 MP DAMOH MP 7 DAMOH
8 MP KHAJURAHO MP 8 SATNA
9 MP SATNA MP 9 REWA
10 MP REWA MP 10 SIDHI
11 MP SIDHI MP 11 SHAHDOL
12 MP SHAHDOL MP 12 BALAGHAT
13 MP JABALPUR MP 13 MANDLA
14 MP MANDLA MP 14 JABALPUR
15 MP BALAGHAT MP 15 SEONI
16 MP CHHINDWARA MP 16 CHHINDWARA
17 MP HOSHANGABAD MP 17 BETUL
18 MP VIDISHA MP 18 HOSHANGABAD
19 MP BHOPAL MP 19 BHOPAL
20 MP RAJGARH MP 20 VIDISHA
21 MP DEWAS MP 21 RAJGARH
22 MP UJJAIN MP 22 SHAJAPUR
23 MP MANDSOUR MP 23 KHANDWA
24 MP RATLAM MP 24 KHARGONE
25 MP DHAR MP 25 DHAR
26 MP INDORE MP 26 INDORE
27 MP KHARGONE MP 27 UJJAIN
28 MP KHANDWA MP 28 JHABUA
29 MP BETUL MP 29 MANDSAUR
1 MH NANDURBAR MH 1 RAJAPUR
2 MH DHULE MH 2 RATNAGIRI
3 MH JALGAON MH 3 KOLABA
4 MH RAVER MH 4 MUMBAI SOUTH
5 MH BULDHANA MH 5 MUMBAI SOUTH CENTRAL
6 MH AKOLA MH 6 MUMBAI NORTH CENTRAL
7 MH AMRAVATI MH 7 MUMBAI NORTH EAST
8 MH WARDHA MH 8 MUMBAI NORTH WEST
9 MH RAMTEK MH 9 MUMBAI NORTH
10 MH NAGPUR MH 10 THANE
11 MH BHANDARA – GONDIYA MH 11 DAHANU
12 MH GADCHIROLI-CHIMUR MH 12 NASHIK
13 MH CHANDRAPUR MH 13 MALEGAON
14 MH YAVATMAL-WASHIM MH 14 DHULE
15 MH HINGOLI MH 15 NANDURBAR
16 MH NANDED MH 16 ERANDOL
17 MH PARBHANI MH 17 JALGAON
18 MH JALNA MH 18 BULDHANA
19 MH AURANGABAD MH 19 AKOLA
20 MH DINDORI MH 20 WASHIM
21 MH NASHIK MH 21 AMRAVATI
22 MH PALGHAR MH 22 RAMTEK
23 MH BHIWANDI MH 23 NAGPUR
24 MH KALYAN MH 24 BHANDARA
25 MH THANE MH 25 CHIMUR
26 MH MUMBAI NORTH MH 26 CHANDRAPUR
27 MH MUMBAI NORTH WEST MH 27 WARDHA
28 MH MUMBAI NORTH EAST MH 28 YAVATMAL
29 MH MUMBAI NORTH CENTRAL MH 29 HINGOLI
30 MH MUMBAI SOUTH CENTRAL MH 30 NANDED
31 MH MUMBAI SOUTH MH 31 PARBHANI
32 MH RAIGAD MH 32 JALNA
33 MH MAVAL MH 33 AURANGABAD
34 MH PUNE MH 34 BEED
35 MH BARAMATI MH 35 LATUR
36 MH SHIRUR MH 36 OSMANABAD
37 MH AHMADNAGAR MH 37 SHOLAPUR
38 MH SHIRDI MH 38 PANDHARPUR
39 MH BEED MH 39 AHMEDNAGAR
40 MH OSMANABAD MH 40 KOPARGAON
41 MH LATUR MH 41 KHED
42 MH SOLAPUR MH 42 PUNE
43 MH MADHA MH 43 BARAMATI
44 MH SANGLI MH 44 SATARA
45 MH SATARA MH 45 KARAD
46 MH RATNAGIRI – SINDHUDURG MH 46 SANGLI
47 MH KOLHAPUR MH 47 ICHALKARANJI
48 MH HATKANANGLE MH 48 KOLHAPUR
1 MN INNER MANIPUR MN 1 INNER MANIPUR
2 MN OUTER MANIPUR MN 2 OUTER MANIPUR
1 ML SHILLONG ML 1 SHILLONG
2 ML TURA ML 2 TURA
1 MZ MIZORAM MZ 1 MIZORAM
1 NL NAGALAND NL 1 NAGALAND
1 OR BARGARH OR 1 MAYURBHANJ
2 OR SUNDARGARH OR 2 BALASORE
3 OR SAMBALPUR OR 3 BHADRAK
4 OR KEONJHAR OR 4 JAJPUR
5 OR MAYURBHANJ OR 5 KENDRAPARA
6 OR BALASORE OR 6 CUTTACK
7 OR BHADRAK OR 7 JAGATSINGHPUR
8 OR JAJPUR OR 8 PURI
9 OR DHENKANAL OR 9 BHUBANESWAR
10 OR BOLANGIR OR 10 ASKA
11 OR KALAHANDI OR 11 BERHAMPUR
12 OR NABARANGPUR OR 12 KORAPUT
13 OR KANDHAMAL OR 13 NOWRANGPUR
14 OR CUTTACK OR 14 KALAHANDI
15 OR KENDRAPARA OR 15 PHULBANI
16 OR JAGATSINGHPUR OR 16 BOLANGIR
17 OR PURI OR 17 SAMBALPUR
18 OR BHUBANESWAR OR 18 DEOGARH
19 OR ASKA OR 19 DHENKANAL
20 OR BERHAMPUR OR 20 SUNDARGARH
21 OR KORAPUT OR 21 KEONJHAR
1 PB GURDASPUR PB 1 GURDASPUR
2 PB AMRITSAR PB 2 AMRITSAR
3 PB KHADOOR SAHIB PB 3 TARN TARAN
4 PB JALANDHAR PB 4 JULLUNDUR
5 PB HOSHIARPUR PB 5 PHILLAUR
6 PB ANANDPUR SAHIB PB 6 HOSHIARPUR
7 PB LUDHIANA PB 7 ROPAR
8 PB FATEHGARH SAHIB PB 8 PATIALA
9 PB FARIDKOT PB 9 LUDHIANA
10 PB FEROZPUR PB 10 SANGRUR
11 PB BATHINDA PB 11 BHATINDA
12 PB SANGRUR PB 12 FARIDKOT
13 PB PATIALA PB 13 FEROZEPUR
1 RJ GANGANAGAR RJ 1 GANGANAGAR
2 RJ BIKANER RJ 2 BIKANER
3 RJ CHURU RJ 3 CHURU
4 RJ JHUNJHUNU RJ 4 JHUNJHUNU
5 RJ SIKAR RJ 5 SIKAR
6 RJ JAIPUR RURAL RJ 6 JAIPUR
7 RJ JAIPUR RJ 7 DAUSA
8 RJ ALWAR RJ 8 ALWAR
9 RJ BHARATPUR RJ 9 BHARATPUR
10 RJ KARAULI-DHOLPUR RJ 10 BAYANA
11 RJ DAUSA RJ 11 SAWAI MADHOPUR
12 RJ TONK-SAWAI MADHOPUR RJ 12 AJMER
13 RJ AJMER RJ 13 TONK
14 RJ NAGAUR RJ 14 KOTA
15 RJ PALI RJ 15 JHALAWAR
16 RJ JODHPUR RJ 16 BANSWARA
17 RJ BARMER RJ 17 SALUMBER
18 RJ JALORE RJ 18 UDAIPUR
19 RJ UDAIPUR RJ 19 CHITTORGARH
20 RJ BANSWARA RJ 20 BHILWARA
21 RJ CHITTORGARH RJ 21 PALI
22 RJ RAJSAMAND RJ 22 JALORE
23 RJ BHILWARA RJ 23 BARMER
24 RJ KOTA RJ 24 JODHPUR
25 RJ JHALAWAR-BARAN RJ 25 NAGAUR
1 SK SIKKIM SK 1 SIKKIM
1 TN THIRUVALLUR TN 1 MADRAS NORTH
2 TN CHENNAI NORTH TN 2 MADRAS CENTRAL
3 TN CHENNAI SOUTH TN 3 MADRAS SOUTH
4 TN CHENNAI CENTRAL TN 4 SRIPERUMBUDUR
5 TN SRIPERUMBUDUR TN 5 CHENGALPATTU
6 TN KANCHEEPURAM TN 6 ARAKKONAM
7 TN ARAKKONAM TN 7 VELLORE
8 TN VELLORE TN 8 TIRUPPATTUR
9 TN KRISHNAGIRI TN 9 VANDAVASI
10 TN DHARMAPURI TN 10 TINDIVANAM
11 TN TIRUVANNAMALAI TN 11 CUDDALORE
12 TN ARANI TN 12 CHIDAMBARAM
13 TN VILUPPURAM TN 13 DHARMAPURI
14 TN KALLAKURICHI TN 14 KRISHNAGIRI
15 TN SALEM TN 15 RASIPURAM
16 TN NAMAKKAL TN 16 SALEM
17 TN ERODE TN 17 TIRUCHENGODE
18 TN TIRUPPUR TN 18 NILGIRIS
19 TN NILGIRIS TN 19 GOBICHETTIPALAYAM
20 TN COIMBATORE TN 20 COIMBATORE
21 TN POLLACHI TN 21 POLLACHI
22 TN DINDIGUL TN 22 PALANI
23 TN KARUR TN 23 DINDIGUL
24 TN TIRUCHIRAPPALLI TN 24 MADURAI
25 TN PERAMBALUR TN 25 PERIYAKULAM
26 TN CUDDALORE TN 26 KARUR
27 TN CHIDAMBARAM TN 27 TIRUCHIRAPPALLI
28 TN MAYILADUTHURAI TN 28 PERAMBALUR
29 TN NAGAPATTINAM TN 29 MAYILADUTURAI
30 TN THANJAVUR TN 30 NAGAPATTINAM
31 TN SIVAGANGA TN 31 THANJAVUR
32 TN MADURAI TN 32 PUDUKKOTTAI
33 TN THENI TN 33 SIVAGANGA
34 TN VIRUDHUNAGAR TN 34 RAMANATHAPURAM
35 TN RAMANATHAPURAM TN 35 SIVAKASI
36 TN THOOTHUKKUDI TN 36 TIRUNELVELI
37 TN TENKASI TN 37 TENKASI
38 TN TIRUNELVELI TN 38 TIRUCHENDUR
39 TN KANNIYAKUMARI TN 39 NAGERCOIL
1 TR TRIPURA WEST TR 1 TRIPURA WEST
2 TR TRIPURA EAST TR 2 TRIPURA EAST
1 UP SAHARANPUR UP 1 BIJNOR
2 UP KAIRANA UP 2 AMROHA
3 UP MUZAFFARNAGAR UP 3 MORADABAD
4 UP BIJNOR UP 4 RAMPUR
5 UP NAGINA UP 5 SAMBHAL
6 UP MORADABAD UP 6 BUDAUN
7 UP RAMPUR UP 7 AONLA
8 UP SAMBHAL UP 8 BAREILLY
9 UP AMROHA UP 9 PILIBHIT
10 UP MEERUT UP 10 SHAHJAHANPUR
11 UP BAGHPAT UP 11 KHERI
12 UP GHAZIABAD UP 12 SHAHABAD
13 UP GAUTAM BUDDH NAGAR UP 13 SITAPUR
14 UP BULANDSHAHR UP 14 MISRIKH
15 UP ALIGARH UP 15 HARDOI
16 UP HATHRAS UP 16 LUCKNOW
17 UP MATHURA UP 17 MOHANLALGANJ
18 UP AGRA UP 18 UNNAO
19 UP FATEHPUR SIKRI UP 19 RAE BARELI
20 UP FIROZABAD UP 20 PRATAPGARH
21 UP MAINPURI UP 21 AMETHI
22 UP ETAH UP 22 SULTANPUR
23 UP BADAUN UP 23 AKBARPUR
24 UP AONLA UP 24 FAIZABAD
25 UP BAREILLY UP 25 BARA BANKI
26 UP PILIBHIT UP 26 KAISERGANJ
27 UP SHAHJAHANPUR UP 27 BAHRAICH
28 UP KHERI UP 28 BALRAMPUR
29 UP DHAURAHRA UP 29 GONDA
30 UP SITAPUR UP 30 BASTI
31 UP HARDOI UP 31 DOMARIAGANJ
32 UP MISRIKH UP 32 KHALILABAD
33 UP UNNAO UP 33 BANSGAON
34 UP MOHANLALGANJ UP 34 GORAKHPUR
35 UP LUCKNOW UP 35 MAHARAJGANJ
36 UP RAE BARELI UP 36 PADRAUNA
37 UP AMETHI UP 37 DEORIA
38 UP SULTANPUR UP 38 SALEMPUR
39 UP PRATAPGARH UP 39 BALLIA
40 UP FARRUKHABAD UP 40 GHOSI
41 UP ETAWAH UP 41 AZAMGARH
42 UP KANNAUJ UP 42 LALGANJ
43 UP KANPUR UP 43 MACHHLISHAHR
44 UP AKBARPUR UP 44 JAUNPUR
45 UP JALAUN UP 45 SAIDPUR
46 UP JHANSI UP 46 GHAZIPUR
47 UP HAMIRPUR UP 47 CHANDAULI
48 UP BANDA UP 48 VARANASI
49 UP FATEHPUR UP 49 ROBERTSGANJ
50 UP KAUSHAMBI UP 50 MIRZAPUR
51 UP PHULPUR UP 51 PHULPUR
52 UP ALLAHABAD UP 52 ALLAHABAD
53 UP BARABANKI UP 53 CHAIL
54 UP FAIZABAD UP 54 FATEHPUR
55 UP AMBEDKAR NAGAR UP 55 BANDA
56 UP BAHRAICH UP 56 HAMIRPUR
57 UP KAISERGANJ UP 57 JHANSI
58 UP SHRAWASTI UP 58 JALAUN
59 UP GONDA UP 59 GHATAMPUR
60 UP DOMARIYAGANJ UP 60 BILHAUR
61 UP BASTI UP 61 KANPUR
62 UP SANT KABIR NAGAR UP 62 ETAWAH
63 UP MAHARAJGANJ UP 63 KANNAUJ
64 UP GORAKHPUR UP 64 FARRUKHABAD
65 UP KUSHI NAGAR UP 65 MAINPURI
66 UP DEORIA UP 66 JALESAR
67 UP BANSGAON UP 67 ETAH
68 UP LALGANJ UP 68 FIROZABAD
69 UP AZAMGARH UP 69 AGRA
70 UP GHOSI UP 70 MATHURA
71 UP SALEMPUR UP 71 HATHRAS
72 UP BALLIA UP 72 ALIGARH
73 UP JAUNPUR UP 73 KHURJA
74 UP MACHHLISHAHR UP 74 BULANDSHAHR
75 UP GHAZIPUR UP 75 HAPUR
76 UP CHANDAULI UP 76 MEERUT
77 UP VARANASI UP 77 BAGHPAT
78 UP BHADOHI UP 78 MUZAFFARNAGAR
79 UP MIRZAPUR UP 79 KAIRANA
80 UP ROBERTSGANJ UP 80 SAHARANPUR
1 WB COOCH BEHAR WB 1 COOCH BEHAR
2 WB ALIPURDUARS WB 2 ALIPURDUARS
3 WB JALPAIGURI WB 3 JALPAIGURI
4 WB DARJEELING WB 4 DARJEELING
5 WB RAIGANJ WB 5 RAIGANJ
6 WB BALURGHAT WB 6 BALURGHAT
7 WB MALDAHA UTTAR WB 7 MALDA
8 WB MALDAHA DAKSHIN WB 8 JANGIPUR
9 WB JANGIPUR WB 9 MURSHIDABAD
10 WB BAHARAMPUR WB 10 BERHAMPORE
11 WB MURSHIDABAD WB 11 KRISHNAGAR
12 WB KRISHNANAGAR WB 12 NABADWIP
13 WB RANAGHAT WB 13 BARASAT
14 WB BANGAON WB 14 BASIRHAT
15 WB BARRACKPORE WB 15 JOYNAGAR
16 WB DUM DUM WB 16 MATHURAPUR
17 WB BARASAT WB 17 DIAMOND HARBOUR
18 WB BASIRHAT WB 18 JADAVPUR
19 WB JOYNAGAR WB 19 BARRACKPORE
20 WB MATHURAPUR WB 20 DUM DUM
21 WB DIAMOND HARBOUR WB 21 CALCUTTA NORTH WEST
22 WB JADAVPUR WB 22 CALCUTTA NORTH EAST
23 WB KOLKATA DAKSHIN WB 23 CALCUTTA SOUTH
24 WB KOLKATA UTTAR WB 24 HOWRAH
25 WB HOWRAH WB 25 ULUBERIA
26 WB ULUBERIA WB 26 SERAMPORE
27 WB SRERAMPUR WB 27 HOOGHLY
28 WB HOOGHLY WB 28 ARAMBAGH
29 WB ARAMBAGH WB 29 PANSKURA
30 WB TAMLUK WB 30 TAMLUK
31 WB KANTHI WB 31 CONTAI
32 WB GHATAL WB 32 MIDNAPORE
33 WB JHARGRAM WB 33 JHARGRAM
34 WB MEDINIPUR WB 34 PURULIA
35 WB PURULIA WB 35 BANKURA
36 WB BANKURA WB 36 VISHNUPUR
37 WB BISHNUPUR WB 37 DURGAPUR
38 WB BARDHAMAN PURBA WB 38 ASANSOL
39 WB BURDWAN – DURGAPUR WB 39 BURDWAN
40 WB ASANSOL WB 40 KATWA
41 WB BOLPUR WB 41 BOLPUR
42 WB BIRBHUM WB 42 BIRBHUM
1 CG SARGUJA CG 1 SURGUJA
2 CG RAIGARH CG 2 RAIGARH
3 CG JANJGIR-CHAMPA CG 3 JANJGIR
4 CG KORBA CG 4 BILASPUR
5 CG BILASPUR CG 5 SARANGARH
6 CG RAJNANDGAON CG 6 RAIPUR
7 CG DURG CG 7 MAHASAMUND
8 CG RAIPUR CG 8 KANKER
9 CG MAHASAMUND CG 9 BAAR
10 CG BASTAR CG 10 DURG
11 CG KANKER CG 11 RAJNANDGAON
1 JH RAJMAHAL JH 1 RAJMAHAL
2 JH DUMKA JH 2 DUMKA
3 JH GODDA JH 3 GODDA
4 JH CHATRA JH 4 CHATRA
5 JH KODARMA JH 5 KODARMA
6 JH GIRIDIH JH 6 GIRIDIH
7 JH DHANBAD JH 7 DHANBAD
8 JH RANCHI JH 8 RANCHI
9 JH JAMSHEDPUR JH 9 JAMSHEDPUR
10 JH SINGHBHUM JH 10 SINGHBHUM
11 JH KHUNTI JH 11 KHUNTI
12 JH LOHARDAGA JH 12 LOHARDAGA
13 JH PALAMAU JH 13 PALAMAU
14 JH HAZARIBAGH JH 14 HAZARIBAGH
1 UK TEHRI GARHWAL UK 1 TEHRI GARHWAL
2 UK GARHWAL UK 2 GARHWAL
3 UK ALMORA UK 3 ALMORA
4 UK NAINITAL-UDHAMSINGH NAGAR UK 4 NAINITAL
5 UK HARDWAR UK 5 HARDWAR
1 AN ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS AN 1 ANDAMANNICOBAR ISLANDS
1 CH CHANDIGARH CH 1 CHANDIGARH
1 DN DADAR & NAGAR HAVELI DN 1 DADRANAGAR HAVELI
1 DD DAMAN & DIU DD 1 DAMAN AND DIU
1 DL CHANDNI CHOWK DL 1 NEW DELHI
2 DL NORTH EAST DELHI DL 2 SOUTH DELHI
3 DL EAST DELHI DL 3 OUTER DELHI
4 DL NEW DELHI DL 4 EAST DELHI
5 DL NORTH WEST DELHI DL 5 CHANDNI CHOWK
6 DL WEST DELHI DL 6 DELHI SADAR
7 DL SOUTH DELHI DL 7 KAROL BAGH
1 LD LAKSHADWEEP LD 1 LAKSHADWEEP
1 PY PUDUCHERRY PY 1 PONDICHERRY

India’s 2009 General Elections: the advice of the late “George Eliot” (Mary Ann Evans, 1819-1880) to India’s voting public

It is constantly the task of practical wisdom not to say

“This is good, and I will have it,”

but to say

“This is the less of two unavoidable evils, and I will bear it.”

——— “Address to Working-Men by Felix Holt”,

George Eliot, Blackwood’s Magazine 1868

India’s 2009 General Elections: How 4125 State Assembly Constituencies comprise the 543 new Lok Sabha Constituencies

We appear to have no serious academic political science or voting theory available in the public domain in India today, despite  our having the world’s vastest electorate.   Our rather juvenile national-level media  too often passes off  personal gossip and wild speculation as analytical discussion.

There has been zero mention of the fact that the 15th Lok Sabha is the result of a brand new delimitation (or redistricting) exercise.  Hence an enormous amount of uncertainty must be added to all calculations and attempts at prediction.   Many old Assembly constituencies have been moved to new Lok Sabha constituencies — for example, Tollygunge was part of the old Calcutta South but is not anymore; Allahabad West and Allahabad North are not part of the new Allahabad Lok Sabha constituency, etc etc.  What this means is that even if the actual votes received in 2009 were identical to those in 2004, there would be different electoral outcomes marginally and hence, most probably, in aggregate as well.  The only thing not to be surprised by with the results after voting in this Election may be surprise itself!

[Postscript April 25: I am glad to see that two days after this post, one  national newspaper has ever so slightly begun to realise the significance of delimitation.]

Here are some data based on the EC’s raw data to allow a  better  picture.   It is placed here in the public interest; please check against the EC’s raw data before operational use.

Subroto Roy

State    Lok Sabha Constituency        State Assembly Constituency    No.
AP    ADILABAD    “S01    1”    SIRPUR    1
“S01    1”    ASIFABAD    5
“S01    1”    KHANAPUR    6
“S01    1”    ADILABAD    7
“S01    1”    BOATH    8
“S01    1”    NIRMAL    9
“S01    1”    MUDHOLE    10
AP    PEDDAPALLE    “S01    2”    CHENNUR    2
“S01    2”    BELLAMPALLY    3
“S01    2”    MANCHERIAL    4
“S01    2”    DHARMAPURI    22
“S01    2”    RAMAGUNDAM    23
“S01    2”    MANTHANI    24
“S01    2”    PEDDAPALLE    25
AP    KARIMNAGAR    “S01    3”    KARIMNAGAR    26
“S01    3”    CHOPPADANDI    27
“S01    3”    VEMULAWADA    28
“S01    3”    SIRCILLA    29
“S01    3”    MANAKONDUR    30
“S01    3”    HUZURABAD    31
“S01    3”    HUSNABAD    32
AP    NIZAMABAD    “S01    4”    ARMUR    11
“S01    4”    BODHAN    12
“S01    4”    NIZAMABAD (URBAN)    17
“S01    4”    NIZAMABAD (RURAL)    18
“S01    4”    BALKONDA    19
“S01    4”    KORATLA    20
“S01    4”    JAGTIAL    21
AP    ZAHIRABAD    “S01    5”    JUKKAL    13
“S01    5”    BANSWADA    14
“S01    5”    YELLAREDDY    15
“S01    5”    KAMAREDDY    16
“S01    5”    NARAYANKHED    35
“S01    5”    ANDOLE    36
“S01    5”    ZAHIRABAD    38
AP    MEDAK    “S01    6”    SIDDIPET    33
“S01    6”    MEDAK    34
“S01    6”    NARSAPUR    37
“S01    6”    SANGAREDDY    39
“S01    6”    PATANCHERU    40
“S01    6”    DUBBAK    41
“S01    6”    GAJWEL    42
AP    MALKAJGIRI    “S01    7”    MEDCHAL    43
“S01    7”    MALKAJGIRI    44
“S01    7”    QUTHBULLAPUR    45
“S01    7”    KUKATPALLY    46
“S01    7”    UPPAL    47
“S01    7”    LAL BAHADUR NAGAR    49
“S01    7”    SECUNDERABAD CANTT.    71
AP    SECUNDRABAD    “S01    8”    MUSHEERABAD    57
“S01    8”    AMBERPET    59
“S01    8”    KHAIRATABAD    60
“S01    8”    JUBILEE HILLS    61
“S01    8”    SANATH NAGAR    62
“S01    8”    NAMPALLI    63
“S01    8”    SECUNDRABAD    70
AP    HYDERABAD    “S01    9”    MALAKPET    58
“S01    9”    KARWAN    64
“S01    9”    GOSHAMAHAL    65
“S01    9”    CHARMINAR    66
“S01    9”    CHANDRAYANGUTTA    67
“S01    9”    YAKUTPURA    68
“S01    9”    BAHDURPURA    69
AP    CHELVELLA    “S01    10”    MAHESHWARAM    50
“S01    10”    RAJENDRANAGAR    51
“S01    10”    SERILINGAMPALLY    52
“S01    10”    CHEVELLA    53
“S01    10”    PARGI    54
“S01    10”    VICARADAB    55
“S01    10”    TANDUR    56
AP    MAHBUBNAGAR    “S01    11”    KODANGAL    72
“S01    11”    NARAYANPET    73
“S01    11”    MAHBUBNAGAR    74
“S01    11”    JADCHERLA    75
“S01    11”    DEVARKADRA    76
“S01    11”    MAKTHAL    77
“S01    11”    SHADNAGAR    84
AP    NAGARKURNOOL    “S01    12”    WANAPARTHY    78
“S01    12”    GADWAL    79
“S01    12”    ALAMPUR    80
“S01    12”    NAGARKURNOOL    81
“S01    12”    ACHAMPET    82
“S01    12”    KALWAKURTHY    83
“S01    12”    KOLLAPUR    85
AP    NALGONDA    “S01    13”    DEVARAKONDA    86
“S01    13”    NAGARJUNA SAGAR    87
“S01    13”    MIRYALGUDA    88
“S01    13”    HUZURNAGAR    89
“S01    13”    KODAD    90
“S01    13”    SURYAPET    91
“S01    13”    NALGONDA    92
AP    BHONGIR    “S01    14”    IBRAHIMPATNAM    48
“S01    14”    MUNUGODE    93
“S01    14”    BHONGIR    94
“S01    14”    NAKREKAL    95
“S01    14”    THUNGATHURTHY    96
“S01    14”    ALAIR    97
“S01    14”    JANGOAN    98
AP    WARANGAL    “S01    15”    GHANPUR (STATION)    99
“S01    15”    PALAKURTHI    100
“S01    15”    PARKAL    104
“S01    15”    WARANGAL WEST    105
“S01    15”    WARANGAL EAST    106
“S01    15”    WARDHANAPET    107
“S01    15”    BHUPALPALLE    108
AP    MAHABUBABAD    “S01    16”    DORNAKAL    101
“S01    16”    MAHABUBABAD    102
“S01    16”    NARSAMPET    103
“S01    16”    MULUG    109
“S01    16”    PINAPAKA    110
“S01    16”    YELLANDU    111
“S01    16”    BHADRACHELAM    119
AP    KHAMMAM    “S01    17”    KHAMMAM    112
“S01    17”    PALAIR    113
“S01    17”    MADIRA    114
“S01    17”    WYRA    115
“S01    17”    SATHUPALLI    116
“S01    17”    KOTHAGUDEM    117
“S01    17”    ASWARAOPETA    118
AP    ARUKU    “S01    18”    PALAKONDA    129
“S01    18”    KURUPAM    130
“S01    18”    PARVATHIPURAM    131
“S01    18”    SALUR    132
“S01    18”    ARAKU VALLEY    147
“S01    18”    PADERU    148
“S01    18”    RAMPACHODAVARAM    172
AP    SRIKAKULAM    “S01    19”    ICHCHAPURAM    120
“S01    19”    PALASA    121
“S01    19”    TEKKALI    122
“S01    19”    PATHAPATNAM    123
“S01    19”    SRIKAKULAM    124
“S01    19”    AMADALAVALASA    125
“S01    19”    NARASANNAPETA    127
AP    VIZIANAGARAM    “S01    20”    ETCHERLA    126
“S01    20”    RAJAM    128
“S01    20”    BOBBILI    133
“S01    20”    CHEEPURUPALLE    134
“S01    20”    GAJAPATHINAGARAM    135
“S01    20”    NELLIMARLA    136
“S01    20”    VIZIANAGARAM    137
AP    VISAKHAPATNAM    “S01    21”    SRUNGAVARAPUKOTA    138
“S01    21”    BHIMLI    139
“S01    21”    VISAKHAPATNAM EAST    140
“S01    21”    VISAKHAPATNAM SOUTH    141
“S01    21”    VISAKHAPATNAM NORTH    142
“S01    21”    VISAKHAPATNAM WEST    143
“S01    21”    GAJUWAKA    144
AP    ANAKAPALLI    “S01    22”    CHODAVARAM    145
“S01    22”    MADUGULA    146
“S01    22”    ANAKAPALLE    149
“S01    22”    PENDURTHI    150
“S01    22”    ELAMANCHILI    151
“S01    22”    PAYAKARAOPET    152
“S01    22”    NARSIPATNAM    153
AP    KAKINADA    “S01    23”    TUNI    154
“S01    23”    PRATHIPADU    155
“S01    23”    PITHAPURAM    156
“S01    23”    KAKINADA RURAL    157
“S01    23”    PEDDAPURAM    158
“S01    23”    KAKINADA CITY    160
“S01    23”    JAGGAMPETA    171
AP    AMALAPURAM    “S01    24”    RAMACHANDRAPURAM    161
“S01    24”    MUMMIDIVARAM    162
“S01    24”    AMALAPURAM    163
“S01    24”    RAZOLE    164
“S01    24”    GANNAVARAM    165
“S01    24”    KOTHAPETA    166
“S01    24”    MANDAPETA    167
AP    RAJAHMUNDRY    “S01    25”    ANAPARTHY    159
“S01    25”    RAJANAGARAM    168
“S01    25”    RAJAHMUNDRY CITY    169
“S01    25”    RAJAMUNDRY RURAL    170
“S01    25”    KOVVUR    173
“S01    25”    NIDADAVOLE    174
“S01    25”    GOPALAPURAM    185
AP    NARSAPURAM    “S01    26”    ACHANTA    175
“S01    26”    PALACOLE    176
“S01    26”    NARASAPURAM    177
“S01    26”    BHIMAVARAM    178
“S01    26”    UNDI    179
“S01    26”    TANUKU    180
“S01    26”    TADEPALLIGUDEM    181
AP    ELURU    “S01    27”    UNGUTURU    182
“S01    27”    DENDULURU    183
“S01    27”    ELURU    184
“S01    27”    POLAVARAM    186
“S01    27”    CHINTALAPUDI    187
“S01    27”    NUZVID    189
“S01    27”    KAIKALUR    192
AP    MACHILIPATNAM    “S01    28”    GANNAVARAM    190
“S01    28”    GUDIVADA    191
“S01    28”    PEDANA    193
“S01    28”    MACHILIPATNAM    194
“S01    28”    AVANIGADDA    195
“S01    28”    PAMARRU    196
“S01    28”    PENAMALURU    197
AP    VIJAYAWADA    “S01    29”    TIRUVURU    188
“S01    29”    VIJAYWADA WEST    198
“S01    29”    VIJAYAWADA CENTRAL    199
“S01    29”    VIJAYAWADA EAST    200
“S01    29”    MYLAVARAM    201
“S01    29”    NANDIGAMA    202
“S01    29”    JAGGAYYAPETA    203
AP    GUNTUR    “S01    30”    TADIKONDA    205
“S01    30”    MANGALAGIRI    206
“S01    30”    PONNUR    207
“S01    30”    TENALI    210
“S01    30”    PRATHIPADU    212
“S01    30”    GUNTUR WEST    213
“S01    30”    GUNTUR EAST    214
AP    NARASARAOPET    “S01    31”    PEDAKURAPADU    204
“S01    31”    CHILAKALURIPET    215
“S01    31”    NARASARAOPET    216
“S01    31”    SATTENPALLI    217
“S01    31”    VINUKONDA    218
“S01    31”    GURUZALA    219
“S01    31”    MACHERLA    220
AP    BAPATLA    “S01    32”    VEMURU    208
“S01    32”    REPALLE    209
“S01    32”    BAPATLA    211
“S01    32”    PARCHUR    223
“S01    32”    ADDANKI    224
“S01    32”    CHIRALA    225
“S01    32”    SANTHANUTHALAPADU    226
AP    ONGOLE    “S01    33”    YERRAGONDAPALEM    221
“S01    33”    DARSI    222
“S01    33”    ONGOLE    227
“S01    33”    KONDAPI    229
“S01    33”    MARKAPURAM    230
“S01    33”    GIDDALUR    231
“S01    33”    KANIGIRI    232
AP    NANDYAL    “S01    34”    ALLAGADDA    253
“S01    34”    SRISAILAM    254
“S01    34”    NANDIKOTKUR    255
“S01    34”    PANYAM    257
“S01    34”    NANDYAL    258
“S01    34”    BANAGANAPALLE    259
“S01    34”    DHONE    260
AP    KURNOOL    “S01    35”    KURNOOL    256
“S01    35”    PATTIKONDA    261
“S01    35”    KODUMUR    262
“S01    35”    YEMMIGANUR    263
“S01    35”    MANTRALAYAM    264
“S01    35”    ADONI    265
“S01    35”    ALUR    266
AP    ANANTAPUR    “S01    36”    RAYADURG    267
“S01    36”    URAVAKONDA    268
“S01    36”    GUNTAKAL    269
“S01    36”    TADPATRI    270
“S01    36”    SINGANAMALA    271
“S01    36”    ANANTAPUR URBAN    272
“S01    36”    KALYANDURG    273
AP    HINDUPUR    “S01    37”    RAPTADU    274
“S01    37”    MADAKASIRA    275
“S01    37”    HINDUPUR    276
“S01    37”    PENUKONDA    277
“S01    37”    PUTTAPARTHI    278
“S01    37”    DHARMAVARAM    279
“S01    37”    KADIRI    280
AP    KADAPA    “S01    38”    BADVEL    243
“S01    38”    KADAPA    245
“S01    38”    PULIVENDLA    248
“S01    38”    KAMALAPURAM    249
“S01    38”    JAMMALAMADUGU    250
“S01    38”    PRODDATUR    251
“S01    38”    MYDUKUR    252
AP    NELLORE    “S01    39”    KANDUKUR    228
“S01    39”    KAVALI    233
“S01    39”    ATMAKUR    234
“S01    39”    KOVUR    235
“S01    39”    NELLORE CITY    236
“S01    39”    NELLORE RURAL    237
“S01    39”    UDAYAGIRI    242
AP    TIRUPATI    “S01    40”    SARVEPALLI    238
“S01    40”    GUDUR    239
“S01    40”    SULLURPETA    240
“S01    40”    VENKATAGIRI    241
“S01    40”    TIRUPATI    286
“S01    40”    SRIKALAHASTI    287
“S01    40”    SATYAVEEDU    288
AP    RAJAMPET    “S01    41”    RAJAMPET    244
“S01    41”    KODUR    246
“S01    41”    RAYACHOTI    247
“S01    41”    THAMBALLAPALLE    281
“S01    41”    PILERU    282
“S01    41”    MADANAPALLE    283
“S01    41”    PUNGANUR    284
AP    CHITTOOR    “S01    42”    CHANDRAGIRI    285
“S01    42”    NAGARI    289
“S01    42”    GANGADHARA NELLORE    290
“S01    42”    CHITTOOR    291
“S01    42”    PUTHALAPATTU    292
“S01    42”    PALAMANER    293
“S01    42”    KUPPAM    294
AR    ARUNACHAL WEST    “S02    1”    LUMLA    1
“S02    1”    TAWANG    2
“S02    1”    MUKTO    3
“S02    1”    DIRANG    4
“S02    1”    KALAKTANG    5
“S02    1”    THRIZINO-BURAGAON    6
“S02    1”    BOMDILA    7
“S02    1”    BAMENG    8
“S02    1”    CHAYANG TAJO    9
“S02    1”    SEPPA EAST    10
“S02    1”    SEPPA WEST    11
“S02    1”    PAKKE KESSANG    12
“S02    1”    ITANAGAR    13
“S02    1”    DOIMUKH    14
“S02    1”    SAGALEE    15
“S02    1”    YACHULI    16
“S02    1”    ZIRO HAPOLI    17
“S02    1”    PALIN    18
“S02    1”    NYAPIN    19
“S02    1”    TALI    20
“S02    1”    KOLORIANG    21
“S02    1”    NACHO    22
“S02    1”    TALIHA    23
“S02    1”    DAPORIJO    24
“S02    1”    RAGA    25
“S02    1”    DUMPORIJO    26
“S02    1”    LIROMOBA    27
“S02    1”    LIKABALI    28
“S02    1”    BASAR    29
“S02    1”    ALONG WEST    30
“S02    1”    ALONG EAST    31
“S02    1”    RUMGONG    32
“S02    1”    MECHUKHA    33
AR    ARUNACHAL EAST    “S02    2”    TUTING YINGKIONG    34
“S02    2”    PANGIN    35
“S02    2”    NARI-KOYU    36
“S02    2”    PASIGHAT WEST    37
“S02    2”    PASIGHAT EAST    38
“S02    2”    MEBO    39
“S02    2”    MARIYANG-GEKU    40
“S02    2”    ANINI    41
“S02    2”    DAMBUK    42
“S02    2”    ROING    43
“S02    2”    TEZU    44
“S02    2”    HAYULIANG    45
“S02    2”    CHOWKHAM    46
“S02    2”    NAMSAI    47
“S02    2”    LEKANG    48
“S02    2”    BORDUMSA – DIYUM    49
“S02    2”    MIAO    50
“S02    2”    NAMPONG    51
“S02    2”    CHANGLANG SOUTH    52
“S02    2”    CHANGLANG NORTH    53
“S02    2”    NAMSANG    54
“S02    2”    KHONSA EAST    55
“S02    2”    KHONSA WEST    56
“S02    2”    BORDURIA BOGAPANI    57
“S02    2”    KANUBARI    58
“S02    2”    LONGDING PUMAO    59
“S02    2”    PONGCHAO WAKKA    60
AS    KARIMGANJ    “S03    1”    RATABARI    1
“S03    1”    PATHERKANDI    2
“S03    1”    KARIMGANJ NORTH    3
“S03    1”    KARIMGANJ SOUTH    4
“S03    1”    BADARPUR    5
“S03    1”    HAILAKANDI    6
“S03    1”    KATLICHERRA    7
“S03    1”    ALGAPUR    8
AS    SILCHAR    “S03    2”    SILCHAR    9
“S03    2”    SONAI    10
“S03    2”    DHOLAI    11
“S03    2”    UDHARBOND    12
“S03    2”    LAKHIPUR    13
“S03    2”    BORKHOLA    14
“S03    2”    KATIGORAH    15
AS    AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT    “S03    3”    HAFLONG    16
“S03    3”    BOKAJAN    17
“S03    3”    HOWRAGHAT    18
“S03    3”    DIPHU    19
“S03    3”    BAITHALANGSO    20
AS    DHUBRI    “S03    4”    MANKACHAR    21
“S03    4”    SALMARA SOUTH    22
“S03    4”    DHUBRI    23
“S03    4”    GAURIPUR    24
“S03    4”    GOLOKGANJ    25
“S03    4”    BILASIPARA WEST    26
“S03    4”    BILASIPARA EAST    27
“S03    4”    GOALPARA EAST    37
“S03    4”    GOALPARA WEST    38
“S03    4”    JALESWAR    39
AS    KOKRAJHAR    “S03    5”    GOSSAIGAON    28
“S03    5”    KOKRAJHAR WEST    29
“S03    5”    KOKRAJHAR EAST    30
“S03    5”    SIDLI    31
“S03    5”    BIJNI    33
“S03    5”    SORBHOG    40
“S03    5”    BHABANIPUR    41
“S03    5”    TAMULPUR    58
“S03    5”    BARAMA    62
“S03    5”    CHAPAGURI    63
AS    BARPETA    “S03    6”    BONGAIGAON    32
“S03    6”    ABHAYAPURI NORTH    34
“S03    6”    ABHAYAPURI SOUTH    35
“S03    6”    PATACHARKUCHI    42
“S03    6”    BARPETA    43
“S03    6”    JANIA    44
“S03    6”    BAGHBAR    45
“S03    6”    SARUKHETRI    46
“S03    6”    CHENGA    47
“S03    6”    DHARMAPUR    61
AS    GAUHATI    “S03    7”    DUDHNOI    36
“S03    7”    BOKO    48
“S03    7”    CHHAYGAON    49
“S03    7”    PALASBARI    50
“S03    7”    JALUKBARI    51
“S03    7”    DISPUR    52
“S03    7”    GAUHATI EAST    53
“S03    7”    GAUHATI WEST    54
“S03    7”    HAJO    55
“S03    7”    BARKHETRI    60
AS    MANGALDOI    “S03    8”    KAMALPUR    56
“S03    8”    RANGIA    57
“S03    8”    NALBARI    59
“S03    8”    PANERY    64
“S03    8”    KALAIGAON    65
“S03    8”    SIPAJHAR    66
“S03    8”    MANGALDOI    67
“S03    8”    DALGAON    68
“S03    8”    UDALGURI    69
“S03    8”    MAZBAT    70
AS    TEZPUR    “S03    9”    DHEKIAJULI    71
“S03    9”    BARCHALLA    72
“S03    9”    TEZPUR    73
“S03    9”    RANGAPARA    74
“S03    9”    SOOTEA    75
“S03    9”    BISWANATH    76
“S03    9”    BEHALI    77
“S03    9”    GOHPUR    78
“S03    9”    BIHPURIA    109
AS    NOWGONG    “S03    10”    JAGIROAD    79
“S03    10”    MORIGAON    80
“S03    10”    LAHARIGHAT    81
“S03    10”    RAHA    82
“S03    10”    NAGAON    86
“S03    10”    BARHAMPUR    87
“S03    10”    JAMUNAMUKH    90
“S03    10”    HOJAI    91
“S03    10”    LUMDING    92
AS    KALIABOR    “S03    11”    DHING    83
“S03    11”    BATADRABA    84
“S03    11”    RUPAHIHAT    85
“S03    11”    SAMAGURI    88
“S03    11”    KALIABOR    89
“S03    11”    BOKAKHAT    93
“S03    11”    SARUPATHAR    94
“S03    11”    GOLAGHAT    95
“S03    11”    KHUMTAI    96
“S03    11”    DERGAON    97
AS    JORHAT    “S03    12”    JORHAT    98
“S03    12”    TITABAR    100
“S03    12”    MARIANI    101
“S03    12”    TEOK    102
“S03    12”    AMGURI    103
“S03    12”    NAZIRA    104
“S03    12”    MAHMORA    105
“S03    12”    SONARI    106
“S03    12”    THOWRA    107
“S03    12”    SIVASAGAR    108
AS    DIBRUGARH    “S03    13”    MORAN    115
“S03    13”    DIBRUGARH    116
“S03    13”    LAHOWAL    117
“S03    13”    DULIJAN    118
“S03    13”    TINGKHONG    119
“S03    13”    NAHARKATIA    120
“S03    13”    TINSUKIA    122
“S03    13”    DIGBOI    123
“S03    13”    MARGHERITA    124
AS    LAKHIMPUR    “S03    14”    MAJULI    99
“S03    14”    NAOBOICHA    110
“S03    14”    LAKHIMPUR    111
“S03    14”    DHAKUAKHANA    112
“S03    14”    DHEMAJI    113
“S03    14”    JONAI    114
“S03    14”    CHABUA    121
“S03    14”    DOOMDOOMA    125
“S03    14”    SADIYA    126
BR    VALMIKI NAGAR    “S04    1”    VALMIKI NAGAR    1
“S04    1”    RAMNAGAR    2
“S04    1”    NARKATIAGANJ    3
“S04    1”    BAGAHA    4
“S04    1”    LAURIYA    5
“S04    1”    SIKTA    9
BR    PASCHIM CHAMPARAN    “S04    2”    NAUTAN    6
“S04    2”    CHANPATIA    7
“S04    2”    BETTIAH    8
“S04    2”    RAXAUL    10
“S04    2”    SUGAULI    11
“S04    2”    NARKATIA    12
BR    PURVI CHAMPARAN    “S04    3”    HARSIDHI    13
“S04    3”    GOVINDGANJ    14
“S04    3”    KESARIA    15
“S04    3”    KALYANPUR    16
“S04    3”    PIPRA    17
“S04    3”    MOTIHARI    19
BR    SHEOHAR    “S04    4”    MADHUBAN    18
“S04    4”    CHIRAIA    20
“S04    4”    DHAKA    21
“S04    4”    SHEOHAR    22
“S04    4”    RIGA    23
“S04    4”    BELSAND    30
BR    SITAMARHI    “S04    5”    BATHNAHA    24
“S04    5”    PARIHAR    25
“S04    5”    SURSAND    26
“S04    5”    BAJPATTI    27
“S04    5”    SITAMARHI    28
“S04    5”    RUNISAIDPUR    29
BR    MADHUBANI    “S04    6”    HARLAKHI    31
“S04    6”    BENIPATTI    32
“S04    6”    BISFI    35
“S04    6”    MADHUBANI    36
“S04    6”    KEOTI    86
“S04    6”    JALE    87
BR    JHANJHARPUR    “S04    7”    KHAJAULI    33
“S04    7”    BABUBARHI    34
“S04    7”    RAJNAGAR    37
“S04    7”    JHANJHARPUR    38
“S04    7”    PHULPARAS    39
“S04    7”    LAUKAHA    40
BR    SUPAUL    “S04    8”    NIRMALI    41
“S04    8”    PIPRA    42
“S04    8”    SUPAUL    43
“S04    8”    TRIBENIGANJ    44
“S04    8”    CHHATAPUR    45
“S04    8”    SINGHESHWAR    72
BR    ARARIA    “S04    9”    NARPATGANJ    46
“S04    9”    RANIGANJ    47
“S04    9”    FORBESGANJ    48
“S04    9”    ARARIA    49
“S04    9”    JOKIHAT    50
“S04    9”    SIKTI    51
BR    KISHANGANJ    “S04    10”    BAHADURGANJ    52
“S04    10”    THAKURGANJ    53
“S04    10”    KISHANGANJ    54
“S04    10”    KOCHADHAMAN    55
“S04    10”    AMOUR    56
“S04    10”    BAISI    57
BR    KATIHAR    “S04    11”    KATIHAR    63
“S04    11”    KADWA    64
“S04    11”    BALRAMPUR    65
“S04    11”    PRANPUR    66
“S04    11”    MANIHARI    67
“S04    11”    BARARI    68
BR    PURNIA    “S04    12”    KASBA    58
“S04    12”    BANMANKHI    59
“S04    12”    RUPAULI    60
“S04    12”    DHAMDAHA    61
“S04    12”    PURNIA    62
“S04    12”    KORHA    69
BR    MADHEPURA    “S04    13”    ALAMNAGAR    70
“S04    13”    BIHARIGANJ    71
“S04    13”    MADHEPURA    73
“S04    13”    SONBARSA    74
“S04    13”    SAHARSA    75
“S04    13”    MAHISHI    77
BR    DARBHANGA    “S04    14”    GORA BAURAM    79
“S04    14”    BENIPUR    80
“S04    14”    ALINAGAR    81
“S04    14”    DARBHANGA RURAL    82
“S04    14”    DARBHANGA    83
“S04    14”    BAHADURPUR    85
BR    MUZAFFARPUR    “S04    15”    GAIGHAT    88
“S04    15”    AURAI    89
“S04    15”    BOCHAHA    91
“S04    15”    SAKRA    92
“S04    15”    KURHANI    93
“S04    15”    MUZAFFARPUR    94
BR    VAISHALI    “S04    16”    MINAPUR    90
“S04    16”    KANTI    95
“S04    16”    BARURAJ    96
“S04    16”    PAROO    97
“S04    16”    SAHEBGANJ    98
“S04    16”    VAISHALI    125
BR    GOPALGANJ    “S04    17”    BAIKUNTHPUR    99
“S04    17”    BARAULI    100
“S04    17”    GOPALGANJ    101
“S04    17”    KUCHAIKOTE    102
“S04    17”    BHOREY    103
“S04    17”    HATHUA    104
BR    SIWAN    “S04    18”    SIWAN    105
“S04    18”    ZIRADEI    106
“S04    18”    DARAULI    107
“S04    18”    RAGHUNATHPUR    108
“S04    18”    DARAUNDHA    109
“S04    18”    BARHARIA    110
BR    MAHARAJGANJ    “S04    19”    GORIYAKOTHI    111
“S04    19”    MAHARAJGANJ    112
“S04    19”    EKMA    113
“S04    19”    MANJHI    114
“S04    19”    BANIAPUR    115
“S04    19”    TARAIYA    116
BR    SARAN    “S04    20”    MARHAURA    117
“S04    20”    CHAPRA    118
“S04    20”    GARKHA    119
“S04    20”    AMNOUR    120
“S04    20”    PARSA    121
“S04    20”    SONEPUR    122
BR    HAJIPUR    “S04    21”    HAJIPUR    123
“S04    21”    LALGANJ    124
“S04    21”    MAHUA    126
“S04    21”    RAJA PAKAR    127
“S04    21”    RAGHOPUR    128
“S04    21”    MANHAR    129
BR    UJIARPUR    “S04    22”    PATEPUR    130
“S04    22”    UJIARPUR    134
“S04    22”    MORWA    135
“S04    22”    SARAIRANJAN    136
“S04    22”    MOHIUDDINNAGAR    137
“S04    22”    BIBHUTPUR    138
BR    SAMASTIPUR    “S04    23”    KUSHESHWAR ASTHAN    78
“S04    23”    HAYAGHAT    84
“S04    23”    KALYANPUR    131
“S04    23”    WARISNAGAR    132
“S04    23”    SAMASTIPUR    133
“S04    23”    ROSERA    139
BR    BEGUSARAI    “S04    24”    CHERIA BARIARPUR    141
“S04    24”    BACHHWARA    142
“S04    24”    TEGHRA    143
“S04    24”    MATIHANI    144
“S04    24”    SAHEBPUR KAMAL    145
“S04    24”    BEGUSARAI    146
“S04    24”    BAKHRI    147
BR    KHAGARIA    “S04    25”    SIMRI BAKHTIARPUR    76
“S04    25”    HASANPUR    140
“S04    25”    ALAULI    148
“S04    25”    KHAGARIA    149
“S04    25”    BELDAUR    150
“S04    25”    PARBATTA    151
BR    BHAGALPUR    “S04    26”    BIHPUR    152
“S04    26”    GOPALPUR    153
“S04    26”    PIRPAINTI    154
“S04    26”    KAHALGAON    155
“S04    26”    BHAGALPUR    156
“S04    26”    NATHNAGAR    158
BR    BANKA    “S04    27”    SULTANGANJ    157
“S04    27”    AMARPUR    159
“S04    27”    DHURAIYA    160
“S04    27”    BANKA    161
“S04    27”    KATORIA    162
“S04    27”    BELHAR    163
BR    MUNGER    “S04    28”    MUNGER    165
“S04    28”    JAMALPUR    166
“S04    28”    SURYAGARHA    167
“S04    28”    LAKHISARAI    168
“S04    28”    MOKAMA    178
“S04    28”    BARH    179
BR    NALANDA    “S04    29”    ASTHAWAN    171
“S04    29”    BISHARSHARIF    172
“S04    29”    RAJGIR    173
“S04    29”    ISLAMPUR    174
“S04    29”    HILSA    175
“S04    29”    NALANDA    176
“S04    29”    HARNAUT    177
BR    PATNA SAHIB    “S04    30”    BAKHTIARPUR    180
“S04    30”    DIGHA    181
“S04    30”    BANKIPUR    182
“S04    30”    KUMHRARH    183
“S04    30”    PATNA SAHIB    184
“S04    30”    FATWAH    185
BR    PATALIPUTRA    “S04    31”    DANAPUR    186
“S04    31”    MANER    187
“S04    31”    PHULWARI    188
“S04    31”    MASAURHI    189
“S04    31”    PALIGANJ    190
“S04    31”    BIKRAM    191
BR    ARRAH    “S04    32”    SANDESH    192
“S04    32”    BARHARA    193
“S04    32”    ARRAH    194
“S04    32”    AGIAON    195
“S04    32”    TARARI    196
“S04    32”    JAGDISHPUR    197
“S04    32”    SHAHPUR    198
BR    BUXAR    “S04    33”    BARHAMPUR    199
“S04    33”    BUXAR    200
“S04    33”    DUMRAON    201
“S04    33”    RAJPUR    202
“S04    33”    RAMGARH    203
“S04    33”    DINARA    210
BR    SASARAM    “S04    34”    MOHANIA    204
“S04    34”    BHABUA    205
“S04    34”    CHAINPUR    206
“S04    34”    CHENARI    207
“S04    34”    SASARAM    208
“S04    34”    KARGAHAR    209
BR    KARAKAT    “S04    35”    NOKHA    211
“S04    35”    DEHRI    212
“S04    35”    KARAKAT    213
“S04    35”    GOH    219
“S04    35”    OBRA    220
“S04    35”    NABINAGAR    221
BR    JAHANABAD    “S04    36”    ARWAL    214
“S04    36”    KURTHA    215
“S04    36”    JAHANABAD    216
“S04    36”    GHOSI    217
“S04    36”    MAKHDUMPUR    218
“S04    36”    ATRI    233
BR    AURANGABAD    “S04    37”    KUTUMBA    222
“S04    37”    AURANGABAD    223
“S04    37”    RAFIGANJ    224
“S04    37”    GURUA    225
“S04    37”    IMAMGANJ    227
“S04    37”    TIKARI    231
BR    GAYA    “S04    38”    SHERGHATI    226
“S04    38”    BARACHATTI    228
“S04    38”    BODH GAYA    229
“S04    38”    GAYA TOWN    230
“S04    38”    BELAGANJ    232
“S04    38”    WAZIRGANJ    234
BR    NAWADA    “S04    39”    BARBIGHA    170
“S04    39”    RAJAULI    235
“S04    39”    HISUA    236
“S04    39”    NAWADA    237
“S04    39”    GOBINDPUR    238
“S04    39”    WARSALIGANJ    239
BR    JAMUI    “S04    40”    TARAPUR    164
“S04    40”    SHEIKHPURA    169
“S04    40”    SIKANDRA    240
“S04    40”    JAMUI    241
“S04    40”    JHAJHA    242
“S04    40”    CHAKAI    243
GA    NORTH GOA    “S05    1”    MANDREM    1
“S05    1”    PERNEM    2
“S05    1”    BICHOLIM    3
“S05    1”    TIVIM    4
“S05    1”    MAPUSA    5
“S05    1”    SIOLIM    6
“S05    1”    SALIGAO    7
“S05    1”    CALANGUTE    8
“S05    1”    PORVORIM    9
“S05    1”    ALDONA    10
“S05    1”    PANAJI    11
“S05    1”    TALEIGAO    12
“S05    1”    ST. CRUZ    13
“S05    1”    ST. ANDRE    14
“S05    1”    CUMBARJUA    15
“S05    1”    MAEM    16
“S05    1”    SANQUELIM    17
“S05    1”    PORIEM    18
“S05    1”    VALPOI    19
“S05    1”    PRIOL    20
GA    SOUTH GOA    “S05    2”    PONDA    21
“S05    2”    SIRODA    22
“S05    2”    MARCAIM    23
“S05    2”    MORMUGAO    24
“S05    2”    VASCO-DA-GAMA    25
“S05    2”    DABOLIM    26
“S05    2”    CORTALIM    27
“S05    2”    NUVEM    28
“S05    2”    CURTORIM    29
“S05    2”    FATORDA    30
“S05    2”    MARGAO    31
“S05    2”    BENAULIM    32
“S05    2”    NAVELIM    33
“S05    2”    CUNCOLIM    34
“S05    2”    VELIM    35
“S05    2”    QUEPEM    36
“S05    2”    CURCHOREM    37
“S05    2”    SANVORDEM    38
“S05    2”    SANGUEM    39
“S05    2”    CANACONA    40
GJ    KACHCHH    “S06    1”    ABDASA    1
“S06    1”    MANDVI    2
“S06    1”    BHUJ    3
“S06    1”    ANJAR    4
“S06    1”    GANDHIDHAM    5
“S06    1”    RAPAR    6
“S06    1”    MORBI    65
GJ    BANASKANTHA    “S06    2”    VAV    7
“S06    2”    THARAD    8
“S06    2”    DHANERA    9
“S06    2”    DANTA    10
“S06    2”    PALANPUR    12
“S06    2”    DEESA    13
“S06    2”    DEODAR    14
GJ    PATAN    “S06    3”    VADGAM    11
“S06    3”    KANKREJ    15
“S06    3”    RADHANPUR    16
“S06    3”    CHANASMA    17
“S06    3”    PATAN    18
“S06    3”    SIDHPUR    19
“S06    3”    KHERALU    20
GJ    MAHESANA    “S06    4”    UNJHA    21
“S06    4”    VISNAGAR    22
“S06    4”    BECHARAJI    23
“S06    4”    KADI    24
“S06    4”    MAHESANA    25
“S06    4”    VIJAPUR    26
“S06    4”    MANSA    37
GJ    SABARKANTHA    “S06    5”    HIMATNAGAR    27
“S06    5”    IDAR    28
“S06    5”    KHEDBRAHMA    29
“S06    5”    BHILODA    30
“S06    5”    MODASA    31
“S06    5”    BAYAD    32
“S06    5”    PRANTIJ    33
GJ    GANDHINAGAR    “S06    6”    GANDHINAGAR NORTH    36
“S06    6”    KALOL    38
“S06    6”    SANAND    40
“S06    6”    GHATLODIA    41
“S06    6”    VEJALPUR    42
“S06    6”    NARANPURA    45
“S06    6”    SABARMATI    55
GJ    AHMEDABAD EAST    “S06    7”    DEHGAM    34
“S06    7”    GANDHINAGAR SOUTH    35
“S06    7”    VATVA    43
“S06    7”    NIKOL    46
“S06    7”    NARODA    47
“S06    7”    THAKKARBAPA NAGAR    48
“S06    7”    BAPUNAGAR    49
GJ    AHMEDABAD WEST    “S06    8”    ELLISBRIDGE    44
“S06    8”    AMRAIWADI    50
“S06    8”    DARIAPUR    51
“S06    8”    JAMALPUR – KHADIA    52
“S06    8”    MANINAGAR    53
“S06    8”    DANILIMDA    54
“S06    8”    ASARWA    56
GJ    SURENDRANAGAR    “S06    9”    VIRAMGAM    39
“S06    9”    DHANDHUKA    59
“S06    9”    DASADA    60
“S06    9”    LIMBDI    61
“S06    9”    WADHWAN    62
“S06    9”    CHOTILA    63
“S06    9”    DHRANGADHRA    64
GJ    RAJKOT    “S06    10”    TANKARA    66
“S06    10”    WANKANER    67
“S06    10”    RAJKOT EAST    68
“S06    10”    RAJKOT WEST    69
“S06    10”    RAJKOT SOUTH    70
“S06    10”    RAJKOT RURAL    71
“S06    10”    JASDAN    72
GJ    PORBANDAR    “S06    11”    GONDAL    73
“S06    11”    JETPUR    74
“S06    11”    DHORAJI    75
“S06    11”    PORBANDAR    83
“S06    11”    KUTIYANA    84
“S06    11”    MANAVADAR    85
“S06    11”    KESHOD    88
GJ    JAMNAGAR    “S06    12”    KALAVAD    76
“S06    12”    JAMNAGR RURAL    77
“S06    12”    JAMNAGAR NORTH    78
“S06    12”    JAMNAGAR SOUTH    79
“S06    12”    JAMJODHPUR    80
“S06    12”    KHAMBHALIA    81
“S06    12”    DWARKA    82
GJ    JUNAGADH    “S06    13”    JUNAGADH    86
“S06    13”    VISAVADAR    87
“S06    13”    MANGROL    89
“S06    13”    SOMNATH    90
“S06    13”    TALALA    91
“S06    13”    KODINAR    92
“S06    13”    UNA    93
GJ    AMRELI    “S06    14”    DHARI    94
“S06    14”    AMRELI    95
“S06    14”    LATHI    96
“S06    14”    SAVARKUNDLA    97
“S06    14”    RAJULA    98
“S06    14”    MAHUVA    99
“S06    14”    GARIADHAR    101
GJ    BHAVNAGAR    “S06    15”    TALAJA    100
“S06    15”    PALITANA    102
“S06    15”    BHAVNAGAR RURAL    103
“S06    15”    BHAVNAGAR EAST    104
“S06    15”    BHAVNAGAR WEST    105
“S06    15”    GADHADA    106
“S06    15”    BOTAD    107
GJ    ANAND    “S06    16”    KHAMBHAT    108
“S06    16”    BORSAD    109
“S06    16”    ANKLAV    110
“S06    16”    UMRETH    111
“S06    16”    ANAND    112
“S06    16”    PETLAD    113
“S06    16”    SOJITRA    114
GJ    KHEDA    “S06    17”    DASKROI    57
“S06    17”    DHOLKA    58
“S06    17”    MATAR    115
“S06    17”    NADIAD    116
“S06    17”    MEHMEDABAD    117
“S06    17”    MAHUDHA    118
“S06    17”    KAPADVANJ    120
GJ    PANCHMAHAL    “S06    18”    THASRA    119
“S06    18”    BALASINOR    121
“S06    18”    LUNAWADA    122
“S06    18”    SHEHRA    124
“S06    18”    MORVA HADAF    125
“S06    18”    GODHRA    126
“S06    18”    KALOL    127
GJ    DAHOD    “S06    19”    SANTRAMPUR    123
“S06    19”    FATEPURA    129
“S06    19”    JHALOD    130
“S06    19”    LIMKHEDA    131
“S06    19”    DAHOD    132
“S06    19”    GARBADA    133
“S06    19”    DEVGADBARIA    134
GJ    VADODARA    “S06    20”    SAVLI    135
“S06    20”    VAGHODIA    136
“S06    20”    VADODARA CITY    141
“S06    20”    SAYAJIGUNJ    142
“S06    20”    AKOTA    143
“S06    20”    RAOPURA    144
“S06    20”    MANJALPUR    145
GJ    CHHOTA UDAIPUR    “S06    21”    HALOL    128
“S06    21”    CHHOTA UDAIPUR    137
“S06    21”    JETPUR    138
“S06    21”    SANKHEDA    139
“S06    21”    DABHOI    140
“S06    21”    PADRA    146
“S06    21”    NANDOD    148
GJ    BHARUCH    “S06    22”    KARJAN    147
“S06    22”    DEDIAPADA    149
“S06    22”    JAMBUSAR    150
“S06    22”    VAGRA    151
“S06    22”    JHAGADIA    152
“S06    22”    BHARUCH    153
“S06    22”    ANKLESHWAR    154
GJ    BARDOLI    “S06    23”    MANGROL    156
“S06    23”    MANDVI    157
“S06    23”    KAMREJ    158
“S06    23”    BARDOLI    169
“S06    23”    MAHUVA    170
“S06    23”    VYARA    171
“S06    23”    NIZAR    172
GJ    SURAT    “S06    24”    OLPAD    155
“S06    24”    SURAT EAST    159
“S06    24”    SURAT NORTH    160
“S06    24”    VARACHHA ROAD    161
“S06    24”    KARANJ    162
“S06    24”    KATARGAM    166
“S06    24”    SURAT WEST    167
GJ    NAVSARI    “S06    25”    LIMBAYAT    163
“S06    25”    UDHNA    164
“S06    25”    MAJURA    165
“S06    25”    CHORYASI    168
“S06    25”    JALALPORE    174
“S06    25”    NAVSARI    175
“S06    25”    GANDEVI    176
GJ    VALSAD    “S06    26”    DANGS    173
“S06    26”    VANSDA    177
“S06    26”    DHARAMPUR    178
“S06    26”    VALSAD    179
“S06    26”    PARDI    180
“S06    26”    KAPRADA    181
“S06    26”    UMBERGAON    182
HR    AMBALA    “S07    1”    KALKA    1
“S07    1”    PANCHKULA    2
“S07    1”    NARAINGARH    3
“S07    1”    AMBALA CANTT.    4
“S07    1”    AMBALA CITY    5
“S07    1”    MULANA    6
“S07    1”    SADHAURA    7
“S07    1”    JAGADHRI    8
“S07    1”    YAMUNANAGAR    9
HR    KURUKSHETRA    “S07    2”    RADAUR    10
“S07    2”    LADWA    11
“S07    2”    SHAHBAD    12
“S07    2”    THANESAR    13
“S07    2”    PEHOWA    14
“S07    2”    GUHLA    15
“S07    2”    KALAYAT    16
“S07    2”    KAITHAL    17
“S07    2”    PUNDRI    18
HR    SIRSA    “S07    3”    NARWANA    38
“S07    3”    TOHANA    39
“S07    3”    FATEHABAD    40
“S07    3”    RATIA    41
“S07    3”    KALAWALI    42
“S07    3”    DABWALI    43
“S07    3”    RANIA    44
“S07    3”    SIRSA    45
“S07    3”    ELLENABAD    46
HR    HISAR    “S07    4”    UCHANA KALAN    37
“S07    4”    ADAMPUR    47
“S07    4”    UKLANA    48
“S07    4”    NARNAUND    49
“S07    4”    HANSI    50
“S07    4”    BARWALA    51
“S07    4”    HISAR    52
“S07    4”    NALWA    53
“S07    4”    BAWANI KHERA    59
HR    KARNAL    “S07    5”    NILOKHERI    19
“S07    5”    INDRI    20
“S07    5”    KARNAL    21
“S07    5”    GHARAUNDA    22
“S07    5”    ASSANDH    23
“S07    5”    PANIPAT RURAL    24
“S07    5”    PANIPAT CITY    25
“S07    5”    ISRANA    26
“S07    5”    SAMALKHA    27
HR    SONIPAT    “S07    6”    GANAUR    28
“S07    6”    RAI    29
“S07    6”    KHARKHAUDA    30
“S07    6”    SONIPAT    31
“S07    6”    GOHANA    32
“S07    6”    BARODA    33
“S07    6”    JULANA    34
“S07    6”    SAFIDON    35
“S07    6”    JIND    36
HR    ROHTAK    “S07    7”    MEHAM    60
“S07    7”    GARHI SAMPLA-KILOI    61
“S07    7”    ROHTAK    62
“S07    7”    KALANAUR    63
“S07    7”    BAHADURGARH    64
“S07    7”    BADLI    65
“S07    7”    JHAJJAR    66
“S07    7”    BERI    67
“S07    7”    KOSLI    73
HR    BHIWANI-MAHENDRAGARH    “S07    8”    LOHARU    54
“S07    8”    BADHRA    55
“S07    8”    DADRI    56
“S07    8”    BHIWANI    57
“S07    8”    TOSHAM    58
“S07    8”    ATELI    68
“S07    8”    MAHENDRAGARH    69
“S07    8”    NARNAUL    70
“S07    8”    NANGAL CHAUDHRY    71
HR    GURGAON    “S07    9”    BAWAL    72
“S07    9”    REWARI    74
“S07    9”    PATAUDI    75
“S07    9”    BADSHAHPUR    76
“S07    9”    GURGAON    77
“S07    9”    SOHNA    78
“S07    9”    NUH    79
“S07    9”    FEROZEPUR JHIRKA    80
“S07    9”    PUNAHANA    81
HR    FARIDABAD    “S07    10”    HATHIN    82
“S07    10”    HODAL    83
“S07    10”    PALWAL    84
“S07    10”    PRITHLA    85
“S07    10”    FARIDABAD NIT    86
“S07    10”    BADKHAL    87
“S07    10”    BALLABHGARH    88
“S07    10”    FARIDABAD    89
“S07    10”    TIGAON    90
HP    KANGRA    “S08    1”    CHURAH    1
“S08    1”    CHAMBA    3
“S08    1”    DALHOUSIE    4
“S08    1”    BHATTIYAT    5
“S08    1”    NURPUR    6
“S08    1”    INDORA    7
“S08    1”    FATEHPUR    8
“S08    1”    JAWALI    9
“S08    1”    JAWALAMUKHI    12
“S08    1”    JAISINGHPUR    13
“S08    1”    SULLAH    14
“S08    1”    NAGROTA    15
“S08    1”    KANGRA    16
“S08    1”    SHAHPUR    17
“S08    1”    DHARAMSHALA    18
“S08    1”    PALAMPUR    19
“S08    1”    BAIJNATH    20
HP    MANDI    “S08    2”    BHARMOUR    2
“S08    2”    LAHAUL & SPITI    21
“S08    2”    MANALI    22
“S08    2”    KULLU    23
“S08    2”    BANJAR    24
“S08    2”    ANNI    25
“S08    2”    KARSOG    26
“S08    2”    SUNDERNAGAR    27
“S08    2”    NACHAN    28
“S08    2”    SERAJ    29
“S08    2”    DARANG    30
“S08    2”    JOGINDERNAGAR    31
“S08    2”    MANDI    33
“S08    2”    BALH    34
“S08    2”    SARKAGHAT    35
“S08    2”    RAMPUR    66
“S08    2”    KINNAUR    68
HP    HAMIRPUR    “S08    3”    DEHRA    10
“S08    3”    JASWAN-PRAGPUR    11
“S08    3”    DHARAMPUR    32
“S08    3”    BHORANJ    36
“S08    3”    SUJANPUR    37
“S08    3”    HAMIRPUR    38
“S08    3”    BARSAR    39
“S08    3”    NADAUN    40
“S08    3”    CHINTPURNI    41
“S08    3”    GAGRET    42
“S08    3”    HAROLI    43
“S08    3”    UNA    44
“S08    3”    KUTLEHAR    45
“S08    3”    JHANDUTA    46
“S08    3”    GHUMARWIN    47
“S08    3”    BILASPUR    48
“S08    3”    SRI NAINA DEVIJI    49
HP    SHIMLA    “S08    4”    ARKI    50
“S08    4”    NALAGARH    51
“S08    4”    DOON    52
“S08    4”    SOLAN    53
“S08    4”    KASAULI    54
“S08    4”    PACHHAD    55
“S08    4”    NAHAN    56
“S08    4”    SRI RENUKAJI    57
“S08    4”    PAONTA SAHIB    58
“S08    4”    SHILLAI    59
“S08    4”    CHOPAL    60
“S08    4”    THEOG    61
“S08    4”    KASUMPTI    62
“S08    4”    SHIMLA    63
“S08    4”    SHIMLA RURAL    64
“S08    4”    JUBBAL-KOTKHAI    65
“S08    4”    ROHRU    67
JK    BARAMULLA    “S09    1”    KARNAH    1
“S09    1”    KUPWARA    2
“S09    1”    LOLAB    3
“S09    1”    HANDWARA    4
“S09    1”    LANGATE    5
“S09    1”    URI    6
“S09    1”    RAFIABAD    7
“S09    1”    SOPORE    8
“S09    1”    GUREZ    9
“S09    1”    BANDIPORA    10
“S09    1”    SONAWARI    11
“S09    1”    SANGRAMA    12
“S09    1”    BARAMULLA    13
“S09    1”    GULMARG    14
“S09    1”    PATTAN    15
JK    SRINAGAR    “S09    2”    KANGAN    16
“S09    2”    GANDERBAL    17
“S09    2”    HAZRATBAL    18
“S09    2”    ZADIBAL    19
“S09    2”    EIDGAH    20
“S09    2”    KHANYAR    21
“S09    2”    HABBA KADAL    22
“S09    2”    AMIRA KADAL    23
“S09    2”    SONAWAR    24
“S09    2”    BATMALOO    25
“S09    2”    CHADOORA    26
“S09    2”    BUDGAM    27
“S09    2”    BEERWAH    28
“S09    2”    KHAN SAHIB    29
“S09    2”    CHRAR-I-SHARIEF    30
JK    ANANTNAG    “S09    3”    TRAL    31
“S09    3”    PAMPORE    32
“S09    3”    PULWAMA    33
“S09    3”    RAJPORA    34
“S09    3”    WACHI    35
“S09    3”    SHOPIAN    36
“S09    3”    NOORABAD    37
“S09    3”    KULGAM    38
“S09    3”    HOM SHALI BUGH    39
“S09    3”    ANANTNAG    40
“S09    3”    DEVSAR    41
“S09    3”    DOORU    42
“S09    3”    KOKERNAG    43
“S09    3”    SHANGUS    44
“S09    3”    BIJBEHARA    45
“S09    3”    PAHALGAM    46
JK    LADAKH    “S09    4”    NUBRA    47
“S09    4”    LEH    48
“S09    4”    KARGIL    49
“S09    4”    ZANSKAR    50
JK    UDHAMPUR    “S09    5”    KISHTWAR    51
“S09    5”    INDERWAL    52
“S09    5”    DODA    53
“S09    5”    BHADERWAH    54
“S09    5”    RAMBAN    55
“S09    5”    BANIHAL    56
“S09    5”    GULAB GARH    57
“S09    5”    REASI    58
“S09    5”    GOOL ARNAS    59
“S09    5”    UDHAMPUR    60
“S09    5”    CHENANI    61
“S09    5”    RAM NAGAR    62
“S09    5”    BANI    63
“S09    5”    BASOHLI    64
“S09    5”    KATHUA    65
“S09    5”    BILLAWAR    66
“S09    5”    HIRA NAGAR    67
JK    JAMMU    “S09    6”    SAMBA    68
“S09    6”    VIJAY PUR    69
“S09    6”    NAGROTA    70
“S09    6”    GANDHI NAGAR    71
“S09    6”    JAMMU EAST    72
“S09    6”    JAMMU WEST    73
“S09    6”    BISHNAH    74
“S09    6”    RANBIR SINGH PURA    75
“S09    6”    SUCHET GARH    76
“S09    6”    MARH    77
“S09    6”    RAIPUR DOMANA    78
“S09    6”    AKHNOOR    79
“S09    6”    CHHAMB    80
“S09    6”    NOWSHERA    81
“S09    6”    DARHAL    82
“S09    6”    RAJOURI    83
“S09    6”    KALA KOTE    84
“S09    6”    SURAN KOTE    85
“S09    6”    MENDHAR    86
“S09    6”    POONCH HAVELI    87
KA    CHIKKODI    “S10    1”    NIPPANI    1
“S10    1”    CHIKKODI-SADALGA    2
“S10    1”    ATHANI    3
“S10    1”    KAGWAD    4
“S10    1”    KUDACHI    5
“S10    1”    RAYBAG    6
“S10    1”    HUKKERI    7
“S10    1”    YEMKANMARDI    10
KA    BELGAUM    “S10    2”    ARABHAVI    8
“S10    2”    GOKAK    9
“S10    2”    BELGAUM UTTAR    11
“S10    2”    BELGAUM DAKSHIN    12
“S10    2”    BELGAUM RURAL    13
“S10    2”    BAILHONGAL    16
“S10    2”    SAUNDATTI YELLAMMA    17
“S10    2”    RAMDURG    18
KA    BAGALKOT    “S10    3”    MUDHOL    19
“S10    3”    TERDAL    20
“S10    3”    JAMKHANDI    21
“S10    3”    BILGI    22
“S10    3”    BADAMI    23
“S10    3”    BAGALKOT    24
“S10    3”    HUNGUND    25
“S10    3”    NARGUND    68
KA    BIJAPUR    “S10    4”    MUDDEBIHAL    26
“S10    4”    DEVAR HIPPARGI    27
“S10    4”    BASAVANA BAGEVADI    28
“S10    4”    BABALESHWAR    29
“S10    4”    BIJAPUR CITY    30
“S10    4”    NAGTHAN    31
“S10    4”    INDI    32
“S10    4”    SINDGI    33
KA    GULBARGA    “S10    5”    AFZALPUR    34
“S10    5”    JEVARGI    35
“S10    5”    GURMITKAL    39
“S10    5”    CHITTAPUR    40
“S10    5”    SEDAM    41
“S10    5”    GULBARGA RURAL    43
“S10    5”    GULBARGA DAKSHIN    44
“S10    5”    GULBARGA UTTAR    45
KA    RAICHUR    “S10    6”    SHORAPUR    36
“S10    6”    SHAHAPUR    37
“S10    6”    YADGIR    38
“S10    6”    RAICHUR RURAL    53
“S10    6”    RAICHUR    54
“S10    6”    MANVI    55
“S10    6”    DEVADURGA    56
“S10    6”    LINGSUGUR    57
KA    BIDAR    “S10    7”    CHINCHOLI    42
“S10    7”    ALAND    46
“S10    7”    BASAVAKALYAN    47
“S10    7”    HOMNABAD    48
“S10    7”    BIDAR SOUTH    49
“S10    7”    BIDAR    50
“S10    7”    BHALKI    51
“S10    7”    AURAD    52
KA    KOPPAL    “S10    8”    SINDHANUR    58
“S10    8”    MASKI    59
“S10    8”    KUSHTAGI    60
“S10    8”    KANAKAGIRI    61
“S10    8”    GANGAWATI    62
“S10    8”    YELBURGA    63
“S10    8”    KOPPAL    64
“S10    8”    SIRUGUPPA    92
KA    BELLARY    “S10    9”    HADAGALLI    88
“S10    9”    HAGARIBOMMANAHALLI    89
“S10    9”    VIJAYANAGARA    90
“S10    9”    KAMPLI    91
“S10    9”    BELLARY    93
“S10    9”    BELLARY CITY    94
“S10    9”    SANDUR    95
“S10    9”    KUDLIGI    96
KA    HAVERI    “S10    10”    SHIRAHATTI    65
“S10    10”    GADAG    66
“S10    10”    RON    67
“S10    10”    HANGAL    82
“S10    10”    HAVERI    84
“S10    10”    BYADGI    85
“S10    10”    HIREKERUR    86
“S10    10”    RANIBENNUR    87
KA    DHARWAD    “S10    11”    NAVALGUND    69
“S10    11”    KUNDGOL    70
“S10    11”    DHARWAD    71
“S10    11”    HUBLI-DHARWAD-EAST    72
“S10    11”    HUBLI-DHARWAD-CENTRAL    73
“S10    11”    HUBLI-DHARWAD- WEST    74
“S10    11”    KALGHATGI    75
“S10    11”    SHIGGAON    83
KA    UTTARA KANNADA    “S10    12”    KHANAPUR    14
“S10    12”    KITTUR    15
“S10    12”    HALIYAL    76
“S10    12”    KARWAR    77
“S10    12”    KUMTA    78
“S10    12”    BHATKAL    79
“S10    12”    SIRSI    80
“S10    12”    YELLAPUR    81
KA    DAVANAGERE    “S10    13”    JAGALUR    103
“S10    13”    HARAPANAHALLI    104
“S10    13”    HARIHAR    105
“S10    13”    DAVANAGERE NORTH    106
“S10    13”    DAVANAGERE SOUTH    107
“S10    13”    MAYAKONDA    108
“S10    13”    CHANNAGIRI    109
“S10    13”    HONNALI    110
KA    SHIMOGA    “S10    14”    SHIMOGA RURAL    111
“S10    14”    BHADRAVATI    112
“S10    14”    SHIMOGA    113
“S10    14”    TIRTHAHALLI    114
“S10    14”    SHIKARIPURA    115
“S10    14”    SORAB    116
“S10    14”    SAGAR    117
“S10    14”    BYNDOOR    118
KA    UDUPI CHIKMAGALUR    “S10    15”    KUNDAPURA    119
“S10    15”    UDUPI    120
“S10    15”    KAPU    121
“S10    15”    KARKAL    122
“S10    15”    SRINGERI    123
“S10    15”    MUDIGERE    124
“S10    15”    CHIKMAGALUR    125
“S10    15”    TARIKERE    126
KA    HASSAN    “S10    16”    KADUR    127
“S10    16”    SHRAVANABELAGOLA    193
“S10    16”    ARSIKERE    194
“S10    16”    BELUR    195
“S10    16”    HASSAN    196
“S10    16”    HOLENARASIPUR    197
“S10    16”    ARKALGUD    198
“S10    16”    SAKLESHPUR    199
KA    DAKSHINA KANNADA    “S10    17”    BELTHANGADY    200
“S10    17”    MOODABIDRI    201
“S10    17”    MANGALORE CITY NORTH    202
“S10    17”    MANGALORE CITY SOUTH    203
“S10    17”    MANGALORE    204
“S10    17”    BANTVAL    205
“S10    17”    PUTTUR    206
“S10    17”    SULLIA    207
KA    CHITRADURGA    “S10    18”    MOLAKALMURU    97
“S10    18”    CHALLAKERE    98
“S10    18”    CHITRADURGA    99
“S10    18”    HIRIYUR    100
“S10    18”    HOSADURGA    101
“S10    18”    HOLALKERE    102
“S10    18”    SIRA    136
“S10    18”    PAVAGADA    137
KA    TUMKUR    “S10    19”    CHIKNAYAKANHALLI    128
“S10    19”    TIPTUR    129
“S10    19”    TURUVEKERE    130
“S10    19”    TUMKUR CITY    132
“S10    19”    TUMKUR RURAL    133
“S10    19”    KORATAGERE    134
“S10    19”    GUBBI    135
“S10    19”    MADHUGIRI    138
KA    MANDYA    “S10    20”    MALAVALLI    186
“S10    20”    MADDUR    187
“S10    20”    MELUKOTE    188
“S10    20”    MANDYA    189
“S10    20”    SHRIRANGAPATTANA    190
“S10    20”    NAGAMANGALA    191
“S10    20”    KRISHNARAJPET    192
“S10    20”    KRISHNARAJANAGARA    211
KA    MYSORE    “S10    21”    MADIKERI    208
“S10    21”    VIRAJPET    209
“S10    21”    PIRIYAPATNA    210
“S10    21”    HUNSUR    212
“S10    21”    CHAMUNDESHWARI    215
“S10    21”    KRISHNARAJA    216
“S10    21”    CHAMARAJA    217
“S10    21”    NARASIMHARAJA    218
KA    CHAMARAJANAGAR    “S10    22”    HEGGADADEVANKOTE    213
“S10    22”    NANJANGUD    214
“S10    22”    VARUNA    219
“S10    22”    T.NARASIPUR    220
“S10    22”    HANUR    221
“S10    22”    KOLLEGAL    222
“S10    22”    CHAMARAJANAGAR    223
“S10    22”    GUNDLUPET    224
KA    BANGALORE RURAL    “S10    23”    KUNIGAL    131
“S10    23”    RAJARAJESHWARINAGAR    154
“S10    23”    BANGALORE SOUTH    176
“S10    23”    ANEKAL    177
“S10    23”    MAGADI    182
“S10    23”    RAMANAGARAM    183
“S10    23”    KANAKAPURA    184
“S10    23”    CHANNAPATNA    185
KA    BANGALORE NORTH    “S10    24”    K.R.PURA    151
“S10    24”    BYATARAYANAPURA    152
“S10    24”    YESHVANTHAPURA    153
“S10    24”    DASARAHALLI    155
“S10    24”    MAHALAKSHMI LAYOUT    156
“S10    24”    MALLESHWARAM    157
“S10    24”    HEBBAL    158
“S10    24”    PULAKESHINAGAR    159
KA    BANGALORE CENTRAL    “S10    25”    SARVAGNANAGAR    160
“S10    25”    C.V. RAMAN NAGAR    161
“S10    25”    SHIVAJINAGAR    162
“S10    25”    SHANTI NAGAR    163
“S10    25”    GANDHI NAGAR    164
“S10    25”    RAJAJI NAGAR    165
“S10    25”    CHAMRAJPET    168
“S10    25”    MAHADEVAPURA    174
KA    BANGALORE SOUTH    “S10    26”    GOVINDRAJ NAGAR    166
“S10    26”    VIJAY NAGAR    167
“S10    26”    CHICKPET    169
“S10    26”    BASAVANAGUDI    170
“S10    26”    PADMANABA NAGAR    171
“S10    26”    B.T.M LAYOUT    172
“S10    26”    JAYANAGAR    173
“S10    26”    BOMMANAHALLI    175
KA    CHIKKBALLAPUR    “S10    27”    GAURIBIDANUR    139
“S10    27”    BAGEPALLI    140
“S10    27”    CHIKKABALLAPUR    141
“S10    27”    YELAHANKA    150
“S10    27”    HOSAKOTE    178
“S10    27”    DEVANAHALLI    179
“S10    27”    DODDABALLAPUR    180
“S10    27”    NELAMANGALA    181
KA    KOLAR    “S10    28”    SIDLAGHATTA    142
“S10    28”    CHINTAMANI    143
“S10    28”    SRINIVASPUR    144
“S10    28”    MULBAGAL    145
“S10    28”    KOLAR GOLD FIELD    146
“S10    28”    BANGARAPET    147
“S10    28”    KOLAR    148
“S10    28”    MALUR    149
KL    KASARAGOD    “S11    1”    MANJESHWAR    1
“S11    1”    KASARAGOD    2
“S11    1”    UDUMA    3
“S11    1”    KANHANGAD    4
“S11    1”    TRIKARIPUR    5
“S11    1”    PAYYANNUR    6
“S11    1”    KALLIASSERI    7
KL    KANNUR    “S11    2”    TALIPARAMBA    8
“S11    2”    IRIKKUR    9
“S11    2”    AZHIKODE    10
“S11    2”    KANNUR    11
“S11    2”    DHARMADAM    12
“S11    2”    MATTANNUR    15
“S11    2”    PERAVOOR    16
KL    VADAKARA    “S11    3”    THALASSERY    13
“S11    3”    KUTHUPARAMBA    14
“S11    3”    VADAKARA    20
“S11    3”    KUTTIADI    21
“S11    3”    NADAPURAM    22
“S11    3”    QUILANDY    23
“S11    3”    PERAMBRA    24
KL    WAYANAD    “S11    4”    MANANTHAVADY    17
“S11    4”    SULTHANBATHERY    18
“S11    4”    KALPETTA    19
“S11    4”    THIRUVANMBADI    32
“S11    4”    ERNAD    34
“S11    4”    NILAMBUR    35
“S11    4”    WANDOOR    36
KL    KOZHIKODE    “S11    5”    BALUSSERI    25
“S11    5”    ELATHUR    26
“S11    5”    KOZHIKODE NORTH    27
“S11    5”    KOZHIKODE SOUTH    28
“S11    5”    BEYPORE    29
“S11    5”    KUNNAMANGALAM    30
“S11    5”    KODUVALLY    31
KL    MALAPPURAM    “S11    6”    KONDOTTY    33
“S11    6”    MANJERI    37
“S11    6”    PERINTHALMANNA    38
“S11    6”    MANKADA    39
“S11    6”    MALAPPURAM    40
“S11    6”    VENGARA    41
“S11    6”    VALLIKKUNNU    42
KL    PONNANI    “S11    7”    TIRURANGADI    43
“S11    7”    TANUR    44
“S11    7”    TIRUR    45
“S11    7”    KOTTAKKAL    46
“S11    7”    THAVANUR    47
“S11    7”    PONNANI    48
“S11    7”    THRITHALA    49
KL    PALAKKAD    “S11    8”    PATTAMBI    50
“S11    8”    SHORANUR    51
“S11    8”    OTTAPPALAM    52
“S11    8”    KONGAD    53
“S11    8”    MANNARKKAD    54
“S11    8”    MALAMPUZHA    55
“S11    8”    PALAKKAD    56
KL    ALATHUR    “S11    9”    TARUR    57
“S11    9”    CHITTUR    58
“S11    9”    NEMMARA    59
“S11    9”    ALATHUR    60
“S11    9”    CHELAKKARA    61
“S11    9”    KUNNAMKULAM    62
“S11    9”    WADAKKANCHERY    65
KL    THRISSUR    “S11    10”    GURUVAYOOR    63
“S11    10”    MANALUR    64
“S11    10”    OLLUR    66
“S11    10”    THRISSUR    67
“S11    10”    NATTIKA    68
“S11    10”    IRINJALAKUDA    70
“S11    10”    PUTHUKKAD    71
KL    CHALAKUDY    “S11    11”    KAIPAMANGALAM    69
“S11    11”    CHALAKUDY    72
“S11    11”    KODUNGALLUR    73
“S11    11”    PERUMBAVOOR    74
“S11    11”    ANGAMALY    75
“S11    11”    ALUVA    76
“S11    11”    KUNNATHUNAD    84
KL    ERNAKULAM    “S11    12”    KALAMASSERY    77
“S11    12”    PARAVUR    78
“S11    12”    VYPEEN    79
“S11    12”    KOCHI    80
“S11    12”    THRIPPUNITHURA    81
“S11    12”    ERNAKULAM    82
“S11    12”    THRIKKAKARA    83
KL    IDUKKI    “S11    13”    MUVATTUPUZHA    86
“S11    13”    KOTHAMANGALAM    87
“S11    13”    DEVIKULAM    88
“S11    13”    UDUMBANCHOLA    89
“S11    13”    THODUPUZHA    90
“S11    13”    IDUKKI    91
“S11    13”    PEERUMADE    92
KL    KOTTAYAM    “S11    14”    PIRAVOM    85
“S11    14”    PALA    93
“S11    14”    KADUTHURUTHY    94
“S11    14”    VAIKOM    95
“S11    14”    ETTUMANOOR    96
“S11    14”    KOTTAYAM    97
“S11    14”    PUTHUPPALLY    98
KL    ALAPPUZHA    “S11    15”    AROOR    102
“S11    15”    CHERTHALA    103
“S11    15”    ALAPPUZHA    104
“S11    15”    AMBALAPPUZHA    105
“S11    15”    HARIPAD    107
“S11    15”    KAYAMKULAM    108
“S11    15”    KARUNAGAPPALLY    116
KL    MAVELIKKARA    “S11    16”    CHANGANASSERY    99
“S11    16”    KUTTANAD    106
“S11    16”    MAVELIKKARA    109
“S11    16”    CHENGANNUR    110
“S11    16”    KUNNATHUR    118
“S11    16”    KOTTARAKKARA    119
“S11    16”    PATHANAPURAM    120
KL    PATHANAMTHITTA    “S11    17”    KANJIRAPPALLY    100
“S11    17”    POONJAR    101
“S11    17”    THIRUVALLA    111
“S11    17”    RANNI    112
“S11    17”    ARANMULA    113
“S11    17”    KONNI    114
“S11    17”    ADOOR    115
KL    KOLLAM    “S11    18”    CHAVARA    117
“S11    18”    PUNALUR    121
“S11    18”    CHADAYAMANGALAM    122
“S11    18”    KUNDARA    123
“S11    18”    KOLLAM    124
“S11    18”    ERAVIPURAM    125
“S11    18”    CHATHANNOOR    126
KL    ATTINGAL    “S11    19”    VARKALA    127
“S11    19”    ATTINGAL    128
“S11    19”    CHIRAYINKEEZHU    129
“S11    19”    NEDUMANGAD    130
“S11    19”    VAMANAPURAM    131
“S11    19”    ARUVIKKARA    136
“S11    19”    KATTAKKADA    138
KL    THIRUVANANTHAPURAM    “S11    20”    KAZHAKOOTTAM    132
“S11    20”    VATTIYOOUKAVU    133
“S11    20”    THIRUVANANTHAPURAM    134
“S11    20”    NEMOM    135
“S11    20”    PARASSALA    137
“S11    20”    KOVALAM    139
“S11    20”    NEYYATTINKARA    140
MP    MORENA    “S12    1”    SHEOPUR    1
“S12    1”    VIJAYPUR    2
“S12    1”    SABALGARH    3
“S12    1”    JOURA    4
“S12    1”    SUMAWALI    5
“S12    1”    MORENA    6
“S12    1”    DIMANI    7
“S12    1”    AMBAH    8
MP    BHIND    “S12    2”    ATER    9
“S12    2”    BHIND    10
“S12    2”    LAHAR    11
“S12    2”    MEHGAON    12
“S12    2”    GOHAD    13
“S12    2”    SEWDA    20
“S12    2”    BHANDER    21
“S12    2”    DATIA    22
MP    GWALIOR    “S12    3”    GWALIOR RURAL    14
“S12    3”    GWALIOR    15
“S12    3”    GWALIOR EAST    16
“S12    3”    GWALIOR SOUTH    17
“S12    3”    BHITARWAR    18
“S12    3”    DABRA    19
“S12    3”    KARERA    23
“S12    3”    POHARI    24
MP    GUNA    “S12    4”    SHIVPURI    25
“S12    4”    PICHHORE    26
“S12    4”    KOLARAS    27
“S12    4”    BAMORI    28
“S12    4”    GUNA    29
“S12    4”    ASHOK NAGAR    32
“S12    4”    CHANDERI    33
“S12    4”    MUNGAOLI    34
MP    SAGAR    “S12    5”    BINA    35
“S12    5”    KHURAI    36
“S12    5”    SURKHI    37
“S12    5”    NARYOLI    40
“S12    5”    SAGAR    41
“S12    5”    KURWAI    146
“S12    5”    SIRONJ    147
“S12    5”    SHAMSHABAD    148
MP    TIKAMGARH    “S12    6”    TIKAMGARH    43
“S12    6”    JATARA    44
“S12    6”    PRITHVIPUR    45
“S12    6”    NIWARI    46
“S12    6”    KHARGAPUR    47
“S12    6”    MAHARAJPUR    48
“S12    6”    CHHATARPUR    51
“S12    6”    BIJAWAR    52
MP    DAMOH    “S12    7”    DEORI    38
“S12    7”    REHLI    39
“S12    7”    BANDA    42
“S12    7”    MALHARA    53
“S12    7”    PATHARIYA    54
“S12    7”    DAMOH    55
“S12    7”    JABERA    56
“S12    7”    HATTA    57
MP    KHAJURAHO    “S12    8”    CHANDLA    49
“S12    8”    RAJNAGAR    50
“S12    8”    PAWAI    58
“S12    8”    GUNNAOR    59
“S12    8”    PANNA    60
“S12    8”    VIJAYRAGHAVGARH    92
“S12    8”    MURWARA    93
“S12    8”    BAHORIBAND    94
MP    SATNA    “S12    9”    CHITRAKOOT    61
“S12    9”    RAIGAON    62
“S12    9”    SATNA    63
“S12    9”    NAGOD    64
“S12    9”    MAIHAR    65
“S12    9”    AMARPATAN    66
“S12    9”    RAMPUR-BAGHELAN    67
MP    REWA    “S12    10”    SIRMOUR    68
“S12    10”    SEMARIYA    69
“S12    10”    TEONTHAR    70
“S12    10”    MAUGANJ    71
“S12    10”    DEOTALAB    72
“S12    10”    MANGAWAN    73
“S12    10”    REWA    74
“S12    10”    GURH    75
MP    SIDHI    “S12    11”    CHURHAT    76
“S12    11”    SIDHI    77
“S12    11”    SIHAWAL    78
“S12    11”    CHITRANGI    79
“S12    11”    SINGRAULI    80
“S12    11”    DEVSAR    81
“S12    11”    DHAUHANI    82
“S12    11”    BEOHARI    83
MP    SHAHDOL    “S12    12”    JAISINGHNAGAR    84
“S12    12”    JAITPUR    85
“S12    12”    KOTMA    86
“S12    12”    ANUPPUR    87
“S12    12”    PUSHPRAJGARH    88
“S12    12”    BANDHAVGARH    89
“S12    12”    MANPUR    90
“S12    12”    BARWARA    91
MP    JABALPUR    “S12    13”    PATAN    95
“S12    13”    BARGI    96
“S12    13”    JABALPUR PURBA    97
“S12    13”    JABALPUR UTTAR    98
“S12    13”    JABALPUR CANTT.    99
“S12    13”    JABALPUR PASCHIM    100
“S12    13”    PANAGAR    101
“S12    13”    SIHORA    102
MP    MANDLA    “S12    14”    SHAHPURA    103
“S12    14”    DINDORI    104
“S12    14”    BICHHIYA    105
“S12    14”    NIWAS    106
“S12    14”    MANDLA    107
“S12    14”    KEOLARI    116
“S12    14”    LAKHNADON    117
“S12    14”    GOTEGAON    118
MP    BALAGHAT    “S12    15”    BAIHAR    108
“S12    15”    LANJI    109
“S12    15”    PARASWADA    110
“S12    15”    BALAGHAT    111
“S12    15”    WARASEONI    112
“S12    15”    KATANGI    113
“S12    15”    BARGHAT    114
“S12    15”    SEONI    115
MP    CHHINDWARA    “S12    16”    JUNNARDEO    122
“S12    16”    AMARWARA    123
“S12    16”    CHURAI    124
“S12    16”    SAUNSAR    125
“S12    16”    CHHINDWARA    126
“S12    16”    PARASIA    127
“S12    16”    PANDHURNA    128
MP    HOSHANGABAD    “S12    17”    NARSINGPUR    119
“S12    17”    TENDUKHEDA    120
“S12    17”    GADARWARA    121
“S12    17”    SEONI-MALWA    136
“S12    17”    HOSHANGABAD    137
“S12    17”    SOHAGPUR    138
“S12    17”    PIPARIYA    139
“S12    17”    UDAIPURA    140
MP    VIDISHA    “S12    18”    BHOJPUR    141
“S12    18”    SANCHI    142
“S12    18”    SILWANI    143
“S12    18”    VIDISHA    144
“S12    18”    BASODA    145
“S12    18”    BUDHNI    156
“S12    18”    ICHHAWAR    158
“S12    18”    KHATEGAON    173
MP    BHOPAL    “S12    19”    BERASIA    149
“S12    19”    BHOPAL UTTAR    150
“S12    19”    NARELA    151
“S12    19”    BHOPAL DAKSHIN- PASCHIM    152
“S12    19”    BHOPAL MADHYA    153
“S12    19”    GOVINDPURA    154
“S12    19”    HUZUR    155
“S12    19”    SEHORE    159
MP    RAJGARH    “S12    20”    CHACHOURA    30
“S12    20”    RAGHOGARH    31
“S12    20”    NARSINGHGARH    160
“S12    20”    BIAORA    161
“S12    20”    RAJGARH    162
“S12    20”    KHILCHIPUR    163
“S12    20”    SARANGPUR    164
“S12    20”    SUSNER    165
MP    DEWAS    “S12    21”    ASHTA    157
“S12    21”    AGAR    166
“S12    21”    SHAJAPUR    167
“S12    21”    SHUJALPUR    168
“S12    21”    KALAPIPAL    169
“S12    21”    SONKATCH    170
“S12    21”    DEWAS    171
“S12    21”    HATPIPLIYA    172
MP    UJJAIN    “S12    22”    NAGADA-KHACHROD    212
“S12    22”    MAHIDPUR    213
“S12    22”    TARANA    214
“S12    22”    GHATIYA    215
“S12    22”    UJJAIN UTTAR    216
“S12    22”    UJJAIN DAKSHIN    217
“S12    22”    BADNAGAR    218
“S12    22”    ALOT    223
MP    MANDSOUR    “S12    23”    JAORA    222
“S12    23”    MANDSOUR    224
“S12    23”    MALHARGARH    225
“S12    23”    SUWASRA    226
“S12    23”    GAROTH    227
“S12    23”    MANASA    228
“S12    23”    NEEMUCH    229
“S12    23”    JAWAD    230
MP    RATLAM    “S12    24”    ALIRAJPUR    191
“S12    24”    JOBAT    192
“S12    24”    JHABUA    193
“S12    24”    THANDLA    194
“S12    24”    PETLAWAD    195
“S12    24”    RATLAM RURAL    219
“S12    24”    RATLAM CITY    220
“S12    24”    SAILANA    221
MP    DHAR    “S12    25”    SARDARPUR    196
“S12    25”    GANDHWANI    197
“S12    25”    KUKSHI    198
“S12    25”    MANAWAR    199
“S12    25”    DHARAMPURI    200
“S12    25”    DHAR    201
“S12    25”    BADNAWAR    202
“S12    25”    DR.AMBEDKARNAGAR-MHOW    209
MP    INDORE    “S12    26”    DEPALPUR    203
“S12    26”    INDORE-1    204
“S12    26”    INDORE-2    205
“S12    26”    INDORE-3    206
“S12    26”    INDORE-4    207
“S12    26”    INDORE-5    208
“S12    26”    RAU    210
“S12    26”    SANWER    211
MP    KHARGONE    “S12    27”    MAHESHWAR    183
“S12    27”    KASRAWAD    184
“S12    27”    KHARGONE    185
“S12    27”    BHAGWANPURA    186
“S12    27”    SENDHAWA    187
“S12    27”    RAJPUR    188
“S12    27”    PANSEMAL    189
“S12    27”    BADWANI    190
MP    KHANDWA    “S12    28”    BAGALI    174
“S12    28”    MANDHATA    175
“S12    28”    KHANDWA    177
“S12    28”    PANDHANA    178
“S12    28”    NEPANAGAR    179
“S12    28”    BURHANPUR    180
“S12    28”    BHIKANGAON    181
“S12    28”    BADWAH    182
MP    BETUL    “S12    29”    MULTAI    129
“S12    29”    AMLA    130
“S12    29”    BETUL    131
“S12    29”    GHORADONGRI    132
“S12    29”    BHAINSDEHI    133
“S12    29”    TIMARNI    134
“S12    29”    HARDA    135
“S12    29”    HARSUD    176
MH    NANDURBAR    “S13    1”    AKKALKUWA    1
“S13    1”    SHAHADA    2
“S13    1”    NANDURBAR    3
“S13    1”    NAWAPUR    4
“S13    1”    SAKRI    5
“S13    1”    SHIRPUR    9
MH    DHULE    “S13    2”    DHULE RURAL    6
“S13    2”    DHULE CITY    7
“S13    2”    SINDKHEDA    8
“S13    2”    MALEGAON CENTRAL    114
“S13    2”    MALEGAON OUTER    115
“S13    2”    BAGLAN    116
MH    JALGAON    “S13    3”    JALGAON CITY    13
“S13    3”    JALGAON RURAL    14
“S13    3”    AMALNER    15
“S13    3”    ERANDOL    16
“S13    3”    CHALISGAON    17
“S13    3”    PACHORA    18
MH    RAVER    “S13    4”    CHOPDA    10
“S13    4”    RAVER    11
“S13    4”    BHUSAWAL    12
“S13    4”    JAMNER    19
“S13    4”    MUKTAINAGAR    20
“S13    4”    MALKAPUR    21
MH    BULDHANA    “S13    5”    BULDHANA    22
“S13    5”    CHIKHLI    23
“S13    5”    SINDKHED RAJA    24
“S13    5”    MEHKAR    25
“S13    5”    KHAMGAON    26
“S13    5”    JALGAON (JAMOD)    27
MH    AKOLA    “S13    6”    AKOT    28
“S13    6”    BALAPUR    29
“S13    6”    AKOLA WEST    30
“S13    6”    AKOLA EAST    31
“S13    6”    MURTIJAPUR    32
“S13    6”    RISOD    33
MH    AMRAVATI    “S13    7”    BADNERA    37
“S13    7”    AMRAVATI    38
“S13    7”    TEOSA    39
“S13    7”    DARYAPUR    40
“S13    7”    MELGHAT    41
“S13    7”    ACHALPUR    42
MH    WARDHA    “S13    8”    DHAMAMGAON RAILWAY    36
“S13    8”    MORSHI    43
“S13    8”    ARVI    44
“S13    8”    DEOLI    45
“S13    8”    HINGANGHAT    46
“S13    8”    WARDHA    47
MH    RAMTEK    “S13    9”    KATOL    48
“S13    9”    SAVNER    49
“S13    9”    HINGNA    50
“S13    9”    UMRED    51
“S13    9”    KAMTHI    58
“S13    9”    RAMTEK    59
MH    NAGPUR    “S13    10”    NAGPUR SOUTH WEST    52
“S13    10”    NAGPUR SOUTH    53
“S13    10”    NAGPUR EAST    54
“S13    10”    NAGPUR CENTRAL    55
“S13    10”    NAGPUR WEST    56
“S13    10”    NAGPUR NORTH    57
MH    BHANDARA – GONDIYA    “S13    11”    TUMSAR    60
“S13    11”    BHANDARA    61
“S13    11”    SAKOLI    62
“S13    11”    ARJUNI-MORGAON    63
“S13    11”    TIRORA    64
“S13    11”    GONDIYA    65
MH    GADCHIROLI-CHIMUR    “S13    12”    AMGAON    66
“S13    12”    ARMORI    67
“S13    12”    GADCHIROLI    68
“S13    12”    AHERI    69
“S13    12”    BRAHMAPURI    73
“S13    12”    CHIMUR    74
MH    CHANDRAPUR    “S13    13”    RAJURA    70
“S13    13”    CHANDRAPUR    71
“S13    13”    BALLARPUR    72
“S13    13”    WARORA    75
“S13    13”    WANI    76
“S13    13”    ARNI    80
MH    YAVATMAL-WASHIM    “S13    14”    WASHIM    34
“S13    14”    KARANJA    35
“S13    14”    RALEGAON    77
“S13    14”    YAVATMAL    78
“S13    14”    DIGRAS    79
“S13    14”    PUSAD    81
MH    HINGOLI    “S13    15”    UMARKHED    82
“S13    15”    KINWAT    83
“S13    15”    HADGAON    84
“S13    15”    BASMATH    92
“S13    15”    KALAMNURI    93
“S13    15”    HINGOLI    94
MH    NANDED    “S13    16”    BHOKAR    85
“S13    16”    NANDED NORTH    86
“S13    16”    NANDED SOUTH    87
“S13    16”    NAIGAON    89
“S13    16”    DEGLUR    90
“S13    16”    MUKHED    91
MH    PARBHANI    “S13    17”    JINTUR    95
“S13    17”    PARBHANI    96
“S13    17”    GANGAKHED    97
“S13    17”    PATHRI    98
“S13    17”    PARTUR    99
“S13    17”    GHANSAWANGI    100
MH    JALNA    “S13    18”    101. JALNA    101
“S13    18”    BADNAPUR    102
“S13    18”    BHOKARDAN    103
“S13    18”    SILLOD    104
“S13    18”    PHULAMBRI    106
“S13    18”    PAITHAN    110
MH    AURANGABAD    “S13    19”    KANNAD    105
“S13    19”    AURANGABAD CENTRAL    107
“S13    19”    AURANGABAD WEST    108
“S13    19”    AURANGABAD EAST    109
“S13    19”    GANGAPUR    111
“S13    19”    VAIJAPUR    112
MH    DINDORI    “S13    20”    NANDGAON    113
“S13    20”    KALWAN    117
“S13    20”    CHANDVAD    118
“S13    20”    YEVLA    119
“S13    20”    NIPHAD    121
“S13    20”    DINDORI    122
MH    NASHIK    “S13    21”    SINNAR    120
“S13    21”    NASHIK EAST    123
“S13    21”    NASHIK CENTRAL    124
“S13    21”    NASHIK WEST    125
“S13    21”    DEVLALI    126
“S13    21”    IGATPURI    127
MH    PALGHAR    “S13    22”    DAHANU    128
“S13    22”    VIKRAMGAD    129
“S13    22”    PALGHAR    130
“S13    22”    BOISAR    131
“S13    22”    NALASOPARA    132
“S13    22”    VASAI    133
MH    BHIWANDI    “S13    23”    BHIWANDI RURAL    134
“S13    23”    SHAHAPUR    135
“S13    23”    BHIWANDI WEST    136
“S13    23”    BHIWANDI EAST    137
“S13    23”    KALYAN WEST    138
“S13    23”    MURBAD    139
MH    KALYAN    “S13    24”    AMBERNATH    140
“S13    24”    ULHAS NAGAR    141
“S13    24”    KALYAN EAST    142
“S13    24”    DOMBIVALI    143
“S13    24”    KALYAN RURAL    144
“S13    24”    MUMBRA-KALWA    149
MH    THANE    “S13    25”    MIRA BHAYANDAR    145
“S13    25”    OVALA – MAJIWADA    146
“S13    25”    KOPRI-PACHPAKHADI    147
“S13    25”    THANE    148
“S13    25”    AIROLI    150
“S13    25”    BELAPUR    151
MH    MUMBAI NORTH    “S13    26”    BORIVALI    152
“S13    26”    DAHISAR    153
“S13    26”    MAGATHANE    154
“S13    26”    KANDIVALI EAST    160
“S13    26”    CHARKOP    161
“S13    26”    MALAD WEST    162
MH    MUMBAI NORTH WEST    “S13    27”    JOGESHWARI EAST    158
“S13    27”    DINDOSHI    159
“S13    27”    GOREGAON    163
“S13    27”    VERSOVA    164
“S13    27”    ANDHERI WEST    165
“S13    27”    ANDHERI EAST    166
MH    MUMBAI NORTH EAST    “S13    28”    MULUND    155
“S13    28”    VIKHROLI    156
“S13    28”    BHANDUP WEST    157
“S13    28”    GHATKOPAR WEST    169
“S13    28”    GHATKOPAR EAST    170
“S13    28”    MANKHURD SHIVAJI NAGAR    171
MH    MUMBAI NORTH CENTRAL    “S13    29”    VILE PARLE    167
“S13    29”    CHANDIVALI    168
“S13    29”    KURLA    174
“S13    29”    KALINA    175
“S13    29”    VANDRE EAST    176
“S13    29”    VANDRE WEST    177
MH    MUMBAI SOUTH CENTRAL    “S13    30”    ANUSHAKTI NAGAR    172
“S13    30”    CHEMBUR    173
“S13    30”    DHARAVI    178
“S13    30”    SION KOLIWADA    179
“S13    30”    WADALA    180
“S13    30”    MAHIM    181
MH    MUMBAI SOUTH    “S13    31”    WORLI    182
“S13    31”    SHIVADI    183
“S13    31”    BYCULLA    184
“S13    31”    MALABAR HILL    185
“S13    31”    MUMBA DEVI    186
“S13    31”    COLABA    187
MH    RAIGAD    “S13    32”    PEN    191
“S13    32”    ALIBAG    192
“S13    32”    SHRIVARDHAN    193
“S13    32”    MAHAD    194
“S13    32”    DAPOLI    263
“S13    32”    GUHAGAR    264
MH    MAVAL    “S13    33”    PANVEL    188
“S13    33”    KARJAT    189
“S13    33”    URAN    190
“S13    33”    MAVAL    204
“S13    33”    CHINCHWAD    205
“S13    33”    PIMPRI    206
MH    PUNE    “S13    34”    VADGAOL SHERI    208
“S13    34”    SHIVAJINAGAR    209
“S13    34”    KOTHRUD    210
“S13    34”    PARVATI    212
“S13    34”    PUNE CANTONMENT    214
“S13    34”    KASBA PETH    215
MH    BARAMATI    “S13    35”    DAUND    199
“S13    35”    INDAPUR    200
“S13    35”    BARAMATI    201
“S13    35”    PURANDAR    202
“S13    35”    BHOR    203
“S13    35”    KHADAKWASALA    211
MH    SHIRUR    “S13    36”    JUNNAR    195
“S13    36”    AMBEGAON    196
“S13    36”    KHED ALANDI    197
“S13    36”    SHIRUR    198
“S13    36”    BHOSARI    207
“S13    36”    HADAPSAR    213
MH    AHMADNAGAR    “S13    37”    SHEVGAON    222
“S13    37”    RAHURI    223
“S13    37”    PARNER    224
“S13    37”    AHMEDNAGAR CITY    225
“S13    37”    SHRIGONDA    226
“S13    37”    KARJAT JAMKHED    227
MH    SHIRDI    “S13    38”    AKOLE    216
“S13    38”    SANGAMNER    217
“S13    38”    SHIRDI    218
“S13    38”    KOPARGAON    219
“S13    38”    SHRIRAMPUR    220
“S13    38”    NEVASA    221
MH    BEED    “S13    39”    GEORAI    228
“S13    39”    MAJALGAON    229
“S13    39”    BEED    230
“S13    39”    ASHTI    231
“S13    39”    KAIJ    232
“S13    39”    PARLI    233
MH    OSMANABAD    “S13    40”    AUSA    239
“S13    40”    UMARGA    240
“S13    40”    TULJAPUR    241
“S13    40”    OSMANABAD    242
“S13    40”    PARANDA    243
“S13    40”    BARSHI    246
MH    LATUR    “S13    41”    LOHA    88
“S13    41”    LATUR RURAL    234
“S13    41”    LATUR CITY    235
“S13    41”    AHMADPUR    236
“S13    41”    UDGIR    237
“S13    41”    NILANGA    238
MH    SOLAPUR    “S13    42”    MOHOL    247
“S13    42”    SOLAPUR CITY NORTH    248
“S13    42”    SOLAPUR CITY CENTRAL    249
“S13    42”    AKKALKOT    250
“S13    42”    SOLAPUR SOUTH    251
“S13    42”    PANDHARPUR    252
MH    MADHA    “S13    43”    KARMALA    244
“S13    43”    MADHA    245
“S13    43”    SANGOLE    253
“S13    43”    MALSHIRAS    254
“S13    43”    PHALTAN    255
“S13    43”    MAN    258
MH    SANGLI    “S13    44”    MIRAJ    281
“S13    44”    SANGLI    282
“S13    44”    PALUS-KADEGAON    285
“S13    44”    KHANAPUR    286
“S13    44”    TASGAON – KAVATHE MAHANKAL    287
“S13    44”    JAT    288
MH    SATARA    “S13    45”    WAI    256
“S13    45”    KOREGAON    257
“S13    45”    KARAD NORTH    259
“S13    45”    KARAD SOUTH    260
“S13    45”    PATAN    261
“S13    45”    SATARA    262
MH    RATNAGIRI – SINDHUDURG    “S13    46”    CHIPLUN    265
“S13    46”    RATNAGIRI    266
“S13    46”    RAJAPUR    267
“S13    46”    KANKAVLI    268
“S13    46”    KUDAL    269
“S13    46”    SAWANTWADI    270
MH    KOLHAPUR    “S13    47”    CHANDGAD    271
“S13    47”    RADHANAGARI    272
“S13    47”    KAGAL    273
“S13    47”    KOLHAPUR SOUTH    274
“S13    47”    KARVIR    275
“S13    47”    KOLHAPUR NORTH    276
MH    HATKANANGLE    “S13    48”    SHAHUWADI    277
“S13    48”    HATKANANGLE    278
“S13    48”    ICHALKARANJI    279
“S13    48”    SHIROL    280
“S13    48”    ISLAMPUR    283
“S13    48”    SHIRALA    284
MN    INNER MANIPUR    “S14    1”    KHUNDRAKPAM    1
“S14    1”    HEINGANG    2
“S14    1”    KHURAI    3
“S14    1”    KSHETRIGAO    4
“S14    1”    THONGJU    5
“S14    1”    KEIRAO    6
“S14    1”    ANDRO    7
“S14    1”    LAMLAI    8
“S14    1”    THANGMEIBAND    9
“S14    1”    URIPOK    10
“S14    1”    SAGOLBAND    11
“S14    1”    KEISHAMTHONG    12
“S14    1”    SINGJAMEI    13
“S14    1”    YAISKUL    14
“S14    1”    WANGKHEI    15
“S14    1”    SEKMAI    16
“S14    1”    LAMSANG    17
“S14    1”    KONTHOUJAM    18
“S14    1”    PATSOI    19
“S14    1”    LANGTHABAL    20
“S14    1”    NAORIYA PAKHANGLAKPA    21
“S14    1”    WANGOI    22
“S14    1”    MAYANG IMPHAL    23
“S14    1”    NAMBOL    24
“S14    1”    OINAM    25
“S14    1”    BISHNUPUR    26
“S14    1”    MOIRANG    27
“S14    1”    THANGA    28
“S14    1”    KUMBI    29
“S14    1”    LILONG    30
“S14    1”    THOUBAL    31
“S14    1”    WANGKHEM    32
MN    OUTER MANIPUR    “S14    2”    HEIROK    33
“S14    2”    WANGJING TENTHA    34
“S14    2”    KHANGABOK    35
“S14    2”    WABGAI    36
“S14    2”    KAKCHING    37
“S14    2”    HIYANGLAM    38
“S14    2”    SUGNU    39
“S14    2”    JIRIBAM    40
“S14    2”    CHANDEL (ST)    41
“S14    2”    TENGNOUPAL (ST)    42
“S14    2”    PHUNGYAR (ST)    43
“S14    2”    UKHRUL (ST)    44
“S14    2”    CHINGAI (ST)    45
“S14    2”    SAIKUL (ST)    46
“S14    2”    KARONG (ST)    47
“S14    2”    MAO (ST)    48
“S14    2”    TADUBI (ST)    49
“S14    2”    KANGPOKPI (ST)    50
“S14    2”    SAITU (ST)    51
“S14    2”    TAMEI (ST)    52
“S14    2”    TAMENGLONG (ST)    53
“S14    2”    NUNGBA (ST)    54
“S14    2”    TIPAIMUKH (ST)    55
“S14    2”    THANLON (ST)    56
“S14    2”    HENGLEP (ST)    57
“S14    2”    CHURACHANDPUR (ST)    58
“S14    2”    SAIKOT (ST)    59
“S14    2”    SINGHAT (ST)    60
ML    SHILLONG    “S15    1”    NARTIANG    1
“S15    1”    JOWAI    2
“S15    1”    RALIANG    3
“S15    1”    MOWKAIAW    4
“S15    1”    SUTNGA SAIPUNG    5
“S15    1”    KHLIEHRIAT    6
“S15    1”    AMLAREM    7
“S15    1”    MAWHATI    8
“S15    1”    NONGPOH    9
“S15    1”    JIRANG    10
“S15    1”    UMSNING    11
“S15    1”    UMROI    12
“S15    1”    MAWRYNGKNENG    13
“S15    1”    PYNTHORUMKHRAH    14
“S15    1”    MAWLAI    15
“S15    1”    EAST SHILLONG    16
“S15    1”    NORTH SHILLONG    17
“S15    1”    WEST SHILLONG    18
“S15    1”    SOUTH SHILLONG    19
“S15    1”    MYLLIEM    20
“S15    1”    NONGTHYMMAI    21
“S15    1”    NONGKREM    22
“S15    1”    SOHIONG    23
“S15    1”    MAWPHLANG    24
“S15    1”    MAWSYNRAM    25
“S15    1”    SHELLA    26
“S15    1”    PYNURSLA    27
“S15    1”    SOHRA    28
“S15    1”    MAWKYNREW    29
“S15    1”    MAIRANG    30
“S15    1”    MAWTHADRAISHAN    31
“S15    1”    NONGSTOIN    32
“S15    1”    RAMBRAI JYRNGAM    33
“S15    1”    MAWSHYNRUT    34
“S15    1”    RANIKOR    35
“S15    1”    MAWKYRWAT    36
ML    TURA    “S15    2”    KHARKUTTA    37
“S15    2”    MENDIPATHAR    38
“S15    2”    RESUBELPARA    39
“S15    2”    BAJENGDOBA    40
“S15    2”    SONGSAK    41
“S15    2”    RONGJENG    42
“S15    2”    WILLIAM NAGAR    43
“S15    2”    RAKSAMGRE    44
“S15    2”    TIKRIKILA    45
“S15    2”    PHULBARI    46
“S15    2”    RAJABALA    47
“S15    2”    SELSELLA    48
“S15    2”    DADENGGRE    49
“S15    2”    NORTH TURA    50
“S15    2”    SOUTH TURA    51
“S15    2”    RANGSAKONA    52
“S15    2”    AMPATI    53
“S15    2”    MAHENDRAGANJ    54
“S15    2”    SALMANPARA    55
“S15    2”    GAMBEGRE    56
“S15    2”    DALU    57
“S15    2”    RONGARA SIJU    58
“S15    2”    CHOKPOT    59
“S15    2”    BAGHMARA    60
MZ    MIZORAM    “S16    1”    HACHHEK    1
“S16    1”    DAMPA    2
“S16    1”    MAMIT    3
“S16    1”    TUIRIAL    4
“S16    1”    KOLASIB    5
“S16    1”    SERLUI    6
“S16    1”    TUIVAWL    7
“S16    1”    CHALFILH    8
“S16    1”    TAWI    9
“S16    1”    AIZAWL NORTH – I    10
“S16    1”    AIZAWL NORTH – II    11
“S16    1”    AIZAWL NORTH-III    12
“S16    1”    AIZAWL EAST – I    13
“S16    1”    AIZAWL EAST II    14
“S16    1”    AIZAWL WEST I    15
“S16    1”    AIZAWL WEST II    16
“S16    1”    AIZAWL WEST III    17
“S16    1”    AIZAWL SOUTH I    18
“S16    1”    AIZAWL SOUTH II (AIZAWL X)    19
“S16    1”    AIZAWL SOUTH-III    20
“S16    1”    LENGTENG    21
“S16    1”    TUICHANG    22
“S16    1”    CHAMPHAI NORTH    23
“S16    1”    CHAMPHAI SOUTH    24
“S16    1”    EAST TUIPUI    25
“S16    1”    SERCHHIP    26
“S16    1”    TUIKUM    27
“S16    1”    HRANGTURZO    28
“S16    1”    SOUTH TUIPUI    29
“S16    1”    LUNGLEI NORTH    30
“S16    1”    LUNGLEI EAST    31
“S16    1”    LUNGLEI WEST    32
“S16    1”    LUNGLEI SOUTH    33
“S16    1”    THORANG    34
“S16    1”    WEST TUIPUI    35
“S16    1”    TUICHAWNG    36
“S16    1”    LAWNGTLAI WEST    37
“S16    1”    LAWNGTLAI EAST    38
“S16    1”    SAIHA    39
“S16    1”    PALAK    40
NL    NAGALAND    “S17    1”    DIMAPUR-I    1
“S17    1”    DIMAPUR-II    2
“S17    1”    DIMAPUR-III    3
“S17    1”    GHASPANI-I    4
“S17    1”    GHASPANI-II    5
“S17    1”    TENNING    6
“S17    1”    PEREN    7
“S17    1”    WESTERN ANGAMI    8
“S17    1”    KOHIMA TOWN    9
“S17    1”    NORTHERN ANGAMI-I    10
“S17    1”    NORTHERN ANGAMI-II    11
“S17    1”    TSEMINYU    12
“S17    1”    PUGHOBOTO    13
“S17    1”    SOUTHERN ANGAMI-I    14
“S17    1”    SOUTHERN ANGAMI-II    15
“S17    1”    PFUTSERO    16
“S17    1”    CHIZAMI    17
“S17    1”    CHAZOUBA    18
“S17    1”    PHEK    19
“S17    1”    MELURI    20
“S17    1”    TULI    21
“S17    1”    ARKAKONG    22
“S17    1”    IMPUR    23
“S17    1”    ANGETYONGPANG    24
“S17    1”    MONGOYA    25
“S17    1”    AONGLENDEN    26
“S17    1”    MOKOKCHUNG TOWN    27
“S17    1”    KORIDANG    28
“S17    1”    JANGPETKONG    29
“S17    1”    ALONGTAKI    30
“S17    1”    AKULUTO    31
“S17    1”    ATOIZU    32
“S17    1”    SURUHOTO    33
“S17    1”    AGHUNATO    34
“S17    1”    ZUNHEBOTO    35
“S17    1”    SATAKHA    36
“S17    1”    TYUI    37
“S17    1”    WOKHA    38
“S17    1”    SANIS    39
“S17    1”    BHANDARI    40
“S17    1”    TIZIT    41
“S17    1”    WAKCHING    42
“S17    1”    TAPI    43
“S17    1”    PHOMCHING    44
“S17    1”    TEHOK    45
“S17    1”    MON TOWN    46
“S17    1”    ABOI    47
“S17    1”    MOKA    48
“S17    1”    TAMLU    49
“S17    1”    LONGLENG    50
“S17    1”    NOKSEN    51
“S17    1”    LONGKHIM CHARE    52
“S17    1”    TUENSANG SADAR-I    53
“S17    1”    TUENSANG SADAR-II    54
“S17    1”    TOBU    55
“S17    1”    NOKLAK    56
“S17    1”    THONOKNYU    57
“S17    1”    SHAMATOR CHESSORE    58
“S17    1”    SEYOCHUNG SITIMI    59
“S17    1”    PUNGRO KIPHIRE    60
OR    BARGARH    “S18    1”    PADAMPUR    1
“S18    1”    BIJEPUR    2
“S18    1”    BARGARH    3
“S18    1”    ATTABIRA    4
“S18    1”    BHATLI    5
“S18    1”    BRAJARAJNAGAR    6
“S18    1”    JHARSUGUDA    7
OR    SUNDARGARH    “S18    2”    TALSARA    8
“S18    2”    SUNDARGARH    9
“S18    2”    BIRAMITRAPUR    10
“S18    2”    RAGHUNATHPALI    11
“S18    2”    ROURKELA    12
“S18    2”    RAJGANGAPUR    13
“S18    2”    BONAI    14
OR    SAMBALPUR    “S18    3”    KUCHINDA    15
“S18    3”    RENGALI    16
“S18    3”    SAMBALPUR    17
“S18    3”    RAIRAKHOL    18
“S18    3”    DEOGARH    19
“S18    3”    CHHENDIPADA    62
“S18    3”    ATHAMALLIK    63
OR    KEONJHAR    “S18    4”    TELKOI    20
“S18    4”    GHASIPURA    21
“S18    4”    ANANDAPUR    22
“S18    4”    PATNA    23
“S18    4”    KEONJHAR    24
“S18    4”    CHAMPUA    25
“S18    4”    KARANJIA    30
OR    MAYURBHANJ    “S18    5”    JASHIPUR    26
“S18    5”    SARASKANA    27
“S18    5”    RAIRANGPUR    28
“S18    5”    BANGRIPOSI    29
“S18    5”    UDALA    31
“S18    5”    BARIPADA    33
“S18    5”    MORADA    34
OR    BALASORE    “S18    6”    BADASAHI    32
“S18    6”    JALESWAR    35
“S18    6”    BHOGRAI    36
“S18    6”    BASTA    37
“S18    6”    BALASORE    38
“S18    6”    REMUNA    39
“S18    6”    NILGIRI    40
OR    BHADRAK    “S18    7”    SORO    41
“S18    7”    SIMULIA    42
“S18    7”    BHANDARIPOKHARI    43
“S18    7”    BHADRAK    44
“S18    7”    BASUDEVPUR    45
“S18    7”    DHAMNAGAR    46
“S18    7”    CHANDABALI    47
OR    JAJPUR    “S18    8”    BINJHARPUR    48
“S18    8”    BARI    49
“S18    8”    BARCHANA    50
“S18    8”    DHARMASALA    51
“S18    8”    JAJPUR    52
“S18    8”    KOREI    53
“S18    8”    SUKINDA    54
OR    DHENKANAL    “S18    9”    DHENKANAL    55
“S18    9”    HINDOL    56
“S18    9”    KAMAKHYANAGAR    57
“S18    9”    PARJANGA    58
“S18    9”    PALLAHARA    59
“S18    9”    TALCHER    60
“S18    9”    ANGUL    61
OR    BOLANGIR    “S18    10”    BIRMAHARAJPUR    64
“S18    10”    SONEPUR    65
“S18    10”    LOISINGHA    66
“S18    10”    PATNAGARH    67
“S18    10”    BOLANGIR    68
“S18    10”    TITLAGARH    69
“S18    10”    KANTABANJI    70
OR    KALAHANDI    “S18    11”    NUAPADA    71
“S18    11”    KHARIAR    72
“S18    11”    LANJIGARH    77
“S18    11”    JUNAGARH    78
“S18    11”    DHARMGARH    79
“S18    11”    BHAWANIPATNA    80
“S18    11”    NARLA    81
OR    NABARANGPUR    “S18    12”    UMARKOTE    73
“S18    12”    JHARIGAM    74
“S18    12”    NABARANGPUR    75
“S18    12”    DABUGAM    76
“S18    12”    KOTPAD    142
“S18    12”    MALKANGIRI    146
“S18    12”    CHITRAKONDA    147
OR    KANDHAMAL    “S18    13”    BALIGUDA    82
“S18    13”    G. UDAYAGIRI    83
“S18    13”    PHULBANI    84
“S18    13”    KANTAMAL    85
“S18    13”    BOUDH    86
“S18    13”    DASPALLA    121
“S18    13”    BHANJANAGAR    123
OR    CUTTACK    “S18    14”    BARAMBA    87
“S18    14”    BANKI    88
“S18    14”    ATHAGARH    89
“S18    14”    BARABATI-CUTTACK    90
“S18    14”    CHOUDWAR-CUTTACK    91
“S18    14”    CUTTACK SADAR    93
“S18    14”    KHANDAPADA    120
OR    KENDRAPARA    “S18    15”    SALIPUR    94
“S18    15”    MAHANGA    95
“S18    15”    PATKURA    96
“S18    15”    KENDRAPARA    97
“S18    15”    AUL    98
“S18    15”    RAJANAGAR    99
“S18    15”    MAHAKALAPADA    100
OR    JAGATSINGHPUR    “S18    16”    NIALI    92
“S18    16”    PARADEEP    101
“S18    16”    TIRTOL    102
“S18    16”    BALIKUDA-ERSAMA    103
“S18    16”    JAGATSINGHPUR    104
“S18    16”    KAKATPUR    105
“S18    16”    NIMAPARA    106
OR    PURI    “S18    17”    PURI    107
“S18    17”    BRAMHAGIRI    108
“S18    17”    SATYABADI    109
“S18    17”    PIPILI    110
“S18    17”    CHILIKA    118
“S18    17”    RANPUR    119
“S18    17”    NAYAGARH    122
OR    BHUBANESWAR    “S18    18”    JAYADEV    111
“S18    18”    BHUBANESWAR CENTRAL (MADHYA)    112
“S18    18”    BHUBANESWAR NORTH (UTTAR)    113
“S18    18”    EKAMRA-BHUBANESWAR    114
“S18    18”    JATANI    115
“S18    18”    BEGUNIA    116
“S18    18”    KHURDA    117
OR    ASKA    “S18    19”    POLASARA    124
“S18    19”    KABISURYANGAR    125
“S18    19”    KHALIKOTE    126
“S18    19”    ASKA    128
“S18    19”    SURADA    129
“S18    19”    SANAKHEMUNDI    130
“S18    19”    HINJILI    131
OR    BERHAMPUR    “S18    20”    CHHATRAPUR    127
“S18    20”    GOPALPUR    132
“S18    20”    BERHAMPUR    133
“S18    20”    DIGAPAHANDI    134
“S18    20”    CHIKITI    135
“S18    20”    MOHANA    136
“S18    20”    PARALAKHEMUNDI    137
OR    KORAPUT    “S18    21”    GUNUPUR    138
“S18    21”    BISSAM CUTTACK    139
“S18    21”    RAYAGADA    140
“S18    21”    LAXMIPUR    141
“S18    21”    JEYPORE    143
“S18    21”    KORAPUT    144
“S18    21”    POTTANGI    145
PB    GURDASPUR    “S19    1”    SUJANPUR    1
“S19    1”    BHOA    2
“S19    1”    GURDASPUR    4
“S19    1”    DINA NAGAR    5
“S19    1”    QADIAN    6
“S19    1”    BATALA    7
“S19    1”    FATEHGARH CHURIAN    9
“S19    1”    DERA BABA NANAK    10
PB    AMRITSAR    “S19    2”    AJNALA    11
“S19    2”    RAJA SANSI    12
“S19    2”    MAJITHA    13
“S19    2”    AMRITSAR NORTH    15
“S19    2”    AMRITSAR WEST    16
“S19    2”    AMRITSAR CENTRAL    17
“S19    2”    AMRITSAR EAST    18
“S19    2”    AMRITSAR SOUTH    19
“S19    2”    ATTARI    20
PB    KHADOOR SAHIB    “S19    3”    JANDIALA    14
“S19    3”    TARN TARAN    21
“S19    3”    KHEM KARAN    22
“S19    3”    PATTI    23
“S19    3”    KHADOOR SAHIB    24
“S19    3”    BABA BAKALA    25
“S19    3”    KAPURTHALA    27
“S19    3”    SULTANPUR LODHI    28
“S19    3”    ZIRA    75
PB    JALANDHAR    “S19    4”    TALWARA    3
“S19    4”    PHILLAUR    30
“S19    4”    NAKODAR    31
“S19    4”    SHAHKOT    32
“S19    4”    KARTARPUR    33
“S19    4”    JALANDHAR WEST    34
“S19    4”    JALANDHAR CENTRAL    35
“S19    4”    JALANDHAR NORTH    36
“S19    4”    JALANDHAR CANTT.    37
“S19    4”    ADAMPUR    38
PB    HOSHIARPUR    “S19    5”    SRI HARGOBINDPUR    8
“S19    5”    BHOLATH    26
“S19    5”    PHAGWARA    29
“S19    5”    MUKERIAN    39
“S19    5”    DASUYA    40
“S19    5”    URMAR    41
“S19    5”    SHAM CHAURASI    42
“S19    5”    HOSHIARPUR    43
“S19    5”    CHABBEWAL    44
PB    ANANDPUR SAHIB    “S19    6”    GARHSHANKAR    45
“S19    6”    BANGA    46
“S19    6”    NAWAN SHAHR    47
“S19    6”    BALACHAUR    48
“S19    6”    ANANDPUR SAHIB    49
“S19    6”    RUPNAGAR    50
“S19    6”    CHAMKAUR SAHIB    51
“S19    6”    KHARAR    52
“S19    6”    S.A.S.NAGAR    53
PB    LUDHIANA    “S19    7”    LUDHIANA EAST    60
“S19    7”    LUDHIANA SOUTH    61
“S19    7”    ATAM NAGAR    62
“S19    7”    LUDHIANA CENTRAL    63
“S19    7”    LUDHIANA WEST    64
“S19    7”    LUDHIANA NORTH    65
“S19    7”    GILL    66
“S19    7”    DAKHA    68
“S19    7”    JAGRAON    70
PB    FATEHGARH SAHIB    “S19    8”    BASSI PATHANA    54
“S19    8”    FATEHGARH SAHIB    55
“S19    8”    AMLOH    56
“S19    8”    KHANNA    57
“S19    8”    SAMRALA    58
“S19    8”    SAHNEWAL    59
“S19    8”    PAYAL    67
“S19    8”    RAIKOT    69
“S19    8”    AMARGARH    106
PB    FARIDKOT    “S19    9”    NIHAL SINGHWALA    71
“S19    9”    BHAGHA PURANA    72
“S19    9”    MOGA    73
“S19    9”    DHARAMKOT    74
“S19    9”    GIDDERBAHA    84
“S19    9”    FARIDKOT    87
“S19    9”    KOTKAPURA    88
“S19    9”    JAITU    89
“S19    9”    RAMPURA PHUL    90
PB    FEROZPUR    “S19    10”    FIROZPUR CITY    76
“S19    10”    FIROZPUR RURAL    77
“S19    10”    GURU HAR SAHAI    78
“S19    10”    JALALABAD    79
“S19    10”    FAZILKA    80
“S19    10”    ABOHAR    81
“S19    10”    BALLUANA    82
“S19    10”    MALOUT    85
“S19    10”    MUKTSAR    86
PB    BATHINDA    “S19    11”    LAMBI    83
“S19    11”    BHUCHO MANDI    91
“S19    11”    BATHINDA URBAN    92
“S19    11”    BATHINDA RURAL    93
“S19    11”    TALWANDI SABO    94
“S19    11”    MAUR    95
“S19    11”    MANSA    96
“S19    11”    SARDULGARH    97
“S19    11”    BUDHLADA    98
PB    SANGRUR    “S19    12”    LEHRA    99
“S19    12”    DIRBA    100
“S19    12”    SUNAM    101
“S19    12”    BHADAUR    102
“S19    12”    BARNALA    103
“S19    12”    MEHAL KALAN    104
“S19    12”    MALERKOTLA    105
“S19    12”    DHURI    107
“S19    12”    SANGRUR    108
PB    PATIALA    “S19    13”    NABHA    109
“S19    13”    PATIALA RURAL    110
“S19    13”    RAJPURA    111
“S19    13”    DERA BASSI    112
“S19    13”    GHANAUR    113
“S19    13”    SANOUR    114
“S19    13”    PATIALA    115
“S19    13”    SAMANA    116
“S19    13”    SHUTRANA    117
RJ    GANGANAGAR    “S20    1”    SADULSHAHAR    1
“S20    1”    GANGANAGAR    2
“S20    1”    KARANPUR    3
“S20    1”    SURATGARH    4
“S20    1”    RAISINGH NAGAR    5
“S20    1”    SANGARIA    7
“S20    1”    HANUMANGARH    8
“S20    1”    PILIBANGA    9
RJ    BIKANER    “S20    2”    ANUPGARH    6
“S20    2”    KHAJUWALA    12
“S20    2”    BIKANER WEST    13
“S20    2”    BIKANER EAST    14
“S20    2”    KOLAYAT    15
“S20    2”    LUNKARANSAR    16
“S20    2”    DUNGARGARH    17
“S20    2”    NOKHA    18
RJ    CHURU    “S20    3”    NOHAR    10
“S20    3”    BHADRA    11
“S20    3”    SADULPUR    19
“S20    3”    TARANAGAR    20
“S20    3”    SARDARSHAHAR    21
“S20    3”    CHURU    22
“S20    3”    RATANGARH    23
“S20    3”    SUJANGARH    24
RJ    JHUNJHUNU    “S20    4”    PILANI    25
“S20    4”    SURAJGARH    26
“S20    4”    JHUNJHUNU    27
“S20    4”    MANDAWA    28
“S20    4”    NAWALGARH    29
“S20    4”    UDAIPURWATI    30
“S20    4”    KHETRI    31
“S20    4”    FATEHPUR    32
RJ    SIKAR    “S20    5”    LACHHMANGARH    33
“S20    5”    DHOD    34
“S20    5”    SIKAR    35
“S20    5”    DANTA RAMGARH    36
“S20    5”    KHANDELA    37
“S20    5”    NEEM KA THANA    38
“S20    5”    SRIMADHOPUR    39
“S20    5”    CHOMU    43
RJ    JAIPUR RURAL    “S20    6”    KOTPUTLI    40
“S20    6”    VIRATNAGAR    41
“S20    6”    SHAHPURA    42
“S20    6”    PHULERA    44
“S20    6”    JHOTWARA    46
“S20    6”    AMBER    47
“S20    6”    JAMWA RAMGARH    48
“S20    6”    BANSUR    63
RJ    JAIPUR    “S20    7”    HAWA MAHAL    49
“S20    7”    VIDHYADHAR NAGAR    50
“S20    7”    CIVIL LINES    51
“S20    7”    KISHAN POLE    52
“S20    7”    ADARSH NAGAR    53
“S20    7”    MALVIYA NAGAR    54
“S20    7”    SANGANER    55
“S20    7”    BAGRU    56
RJ    ALWAR    “S20    8”    TIJARA    59
“S20    8”    KISHANGARH BAS    60
“S20    8”    MUNDAWAR    61
“S20    8”    BEHROR    62
“S20    8”    ALWAR RURAL    65
“S20    8”    ALWAR URBAN    66
“S20    8”    RAMGARH    67
“S20    8”    RAJGARH LAXMANGARH    68
RJ    BHARATPUR    “S20    9”    KATHUMAR    69
“S20    9”    KAMAN    70
“S20    9”    NAGAR    71
“S20    9”    DEEG-KUMHER    72
“S20    9”    BHARATPUR    73
“S20    9”    NADBAI    74
“S20    9”    WEIR    75
“S20    9”    BAYANA    76
RJ    KARAULI-DHOLPUR    “S20    10”    BASERI    77
“S20    10”    BARI    78
“S20    10”    DHOLPUR    79
“S20    10”    RAJAKHERA    80
“S20    10”    TODABHIM    81
“S20    10”    HINDAUN    82
“S20    10”    KARAULI    83
“S20    10”    SAPOTRA    84
RJ    DAUSA    “S20    11”    BASSI    57
“S20    11”    CHAKSU    58
“S20    11”    THANAGAZI    64
“S20    11”    BANDIKUI    85
“S20    11”    MAHUWA    86
“S20    11”    SIKRAI    87
“S20    11”    DAUSA    88
“S20    11”    LALSOT    89
RJ    TONK-SAWAI MADHOPUR    “S20    12”    GANGAPUR    90
“S20    12”    BAMANWAS    91
“S20    12”    SAWAI MADHOPUR    92
“S20    12”    KHANDAR    93
“S20    12”    MALPURA    94
“S20    12”    NIWAI    95
“S20    12”    TONK    96
“S20    12”    DEOLI – UNIARA    97
RJ    AJMER    “S20    13”    DUDU    45
“S20    13”    KISHANGARH    98
“S20    13”    PUSHKAR    99
“S20    13”    AJMER NORTH    100
“S20    13”    AJMER SOUTH    101
“S20    13”    NASIRABAD    102
“S20    13”    MASUDA    104
“S20    13”    KEKRI    105
RJ    NAGAUR    “S20    14”    LADNUN    106
“S20    14”    DEEDWANA    107
“S20    14”    JAYAL    108
“S20    14”    NAGAUR    109
“S20    14”    KHINWSAR    110
“S20    14”    MAKRANA    113
“S20    14”    PARBATSAR    114
“S20    14”    NAWAN    115
RJ    PALI    “S20    15”    SOJAT    117
“S20    15”    PALI    118
“S20    15”    MARWAR JUNCTION    119
“S20    15”    BALI    120
“S20    15”    SUMERPUR    121
“S20    15”    OSIAN    125
“S20    15”    BHOPALGARH    126
“S20    15”    BILARA    131
RJ    JODHPUR    “S20    16”    PHALODI    122
“S20    16”    LOHAWAT    123
“S20    16”    SHERGARH    124
“S20    16”    SARDARPURA    127
“S20    16”    JODHPUR    128
“S20    16”    SOORSAGAR    129
“S20    16”    LUNI    130
“S20    16”    POKARAN    133
RJ    BARMER    “S20    17”    JAISALMER    132
“S20    17”    SHEO    134
“S20    17”    BARMER    135
“S20    17”    BAYTOO    136
“S20    17”    PACHPADRA    137
“S20    17”    SIWANA    138
“S20    17”    GUDHAMALANI    139
“S20    17”    CHOHTAN    140
RJ    JALORE    “S20    18”    AHORE    141
“S20    18”    JALORE    142
“S20    18”    BHINMAL    143
“S20    18”    SANCHORE    144
“S20    18”    RANIWARA    145
“S20    18”    SIROHI    146
“S20    18”    PINDWARA ABU    147
“S20    18”    REODAR    148
RJ    UDAIPUR    “S20    19”    GOGUNDA    149
“S20    19”    JHADOL    150
“S20    19”    KHERWARA    151
“S20    19”    UDAIPUR RURAL    152
“S20    19”    UDAIPUR    153
“S20    19”    SALUMBER    156
“S20    19”    DHARIAWAD    157
“S20    19”    ASPUR    159
RJ    BANSWARA    “S20    20”    DUNGARPUR    158
“S20    20”    SAGWARA    160
“S20    20”    CHORASI    161
“S20    20”    GHATOL    162
“S20    20”    GARHI    163
“S20    20”    BANSWARA    164
“S20    20”    BAGIDORA    165
“S20    20”    KUSHALGARH    166
RJ    CHITTORGARH    “S20    21”    MAVLI    154
“S20    21”    VALLABH NAGAR    155
“S20    21”    KAPASAN    167
“S20    21”    BEGUN    168
“S20    21”    CHITTORGARH    169
“S20    21”    NIMBAHERA    170
“S20    21”    BARI SADRI    171
“S20    21”    PRATAPGARH    172
RJ    RAJSAMAND    “S20    22”    BEAWAR    103
“S20    22”    MERTA    111
“S20    22”    DEGANA    112
“S20    22”    JAITARAN    116
“S20    22”    BHIM    173
“S20    22”    KUMBHALGARH    174
“S20    22”    RAJSAMAND    175
“S20    22”    NATHDWARA    176
RJ    BHILWARA    “S20    23”    ASIND    177
“S20    23”    MANDAL    178
“S20    23”    SAHARA    179
“S20    23”    BHILWARA    180
“S20    23”    SHAHPURA    181
“S20    23”    JAHAZPUR    182
“S20    23”    MANDALGARH    183
“S20    23”    HINDOLI    184
RJ    KOTA    “S20    24”    KESHORAIPATAN    185
“S20    24”    BUNDI    186
“S20    24”    PIPALDA    187
“S20    24”    SANGOD    188
“S20    24”    KOTA NORTH    189
“S20    24”    KOTA SOUTH    190
“S20    24”    LADPURA    191
“S20    24”    RAMGANJ MANDI    192
RJ    JHALAWAR-BARAN    “S20    25”    ANTA    193
“S20    25”    KISHANGANJ    194
“S20    25”    BARAN-ATRU    195
“S20    25”    CHHABRA    196
“S20    25”    DAG    197
“S20    25”    JHALRAPATAN    198
“S20    25”    KHANPUR    199
“S20    25”    MANOHAR THANA    200
SK    SIKKIM    “S21    1”    YOKSAM-TASHIDING    1
“S21    1”    YANGTHANG    2
“S21    1”    MANEYBUNG-DENTAM    3
“S21    1”    GYALSHING-BARNYAK    4
“S21    1”    RINCHENPONG    5
“S21    1”    DARAMDIN    6
“S21    1”    SOREONG-CHAKUNG    7
“S21    1”    SALGHARI-ZOOM    8
“S21    1”    BARFUNG    9
“S21    1”    POKLOK-KAMRANG    10
“S21    1”    NAMCHI-SINGHITHANG    11
“S21    1”    MELLI    12
“S21    1”    NAMTHANG-RATEYPANI    13
“S21    1”    TEMI-NAMPHING    14
“S21    1”    RANGANG-YANGANG    15
“S21    1”    TUMEN-LINGI    16
“S21    1”    KHAMDONG-SINGTAM    17
“S21    1”    WEST PENDAM    18
“S21    1”    RHENOCK    19
“S21    1”    CHUJACHEN    20
“S21    1”    GNATHANG-MACHONG    21
“S21    1”    NAMCHEYBUNG    22
“S21    1”    SHYARI    23
“S21    1”    MARTAM-RUMTEK    24
“S21    1”    UPPER TADONG    25
“S21    1”    ARITHANG    26
“S21    1”    GANGTOK    27
“S21    1”    UPPER BURTUK    28
“S21    1”    KABI LUNGCHUK    29
“S21    1”    DJONGU    30
“S21    1”    LACHEN MANGAN    31
“S21    1”    SANGHA    32
TN    THIRUVALLUR    “S22    1”    GUMMIDIPOONDI    1
“S22    1”    PONNERI    2
“S22    1”    THIRUVALLUR    4
“S22    1”    POONAMALLEE    5
“S22    1”    AVADI    6
“S22    1”    MADAVARAM    9
TN    CHENNAI NORTH    “S22    2”    TIRUVOTTIYUR    10
“S22    2”    DR.RADHAKRISHNAN NAGAR    11
“S22    2”    PERAMBUR    12
“S22    2”    KOLATHUR    13
“S22    2”    THIRU -VI -KA -NAGAR    15
“S22    2”    ROYAPURAM    17
TN    CHENNAI SOUTH    “S22    3”    VIRUGAMPAKKAM    22
“S22    3”    SAIDAPET    23
“S22    3”    THIYAGARAYANAGAR    24
“S22    3”    MYLAPORE    25
“S22    3”    VELACHERY    26
“S22    3”    SHOLINGANALLUR    27
TN    CHENNAI CENTRAL    “S22    4”    VILLIVAKKAM    14
“S22    4”    EGMORE    16
“S22    4”    HARBOUR    18
“S22    4”    CHEPAUK-THIRUVALLIKENI    19
“S22    4”    THOUSAND LIGHTS    20
“S22    4”    ANNA NAGAR    21
TN    SRIPERUMBUDUR    “S22    5”    MADURAVOYAL    7
“S22    5”    AMBATTUR    8
“S22    5”    ALANDUR    28
“S22    5”    SRIPERUMBUDUR    29
“S22    5”    PALLAVARAM    30
“S22    5”    TAMBARAM    31
TN    KANCHEEPURAM    “S22    6”    CHENGALPATTU    32
“S22    6”    THIRUPORUR    33
“S22    6”    CHEYYUR    34
“S22    6”    MADURANTAKAM    35
“S22    6”    UTHIRAMERUR    36
“S22    6”    KANCHEEPURAM    37
TN    ARAKKONAM    “S22    7”    TIRUTTANI    3
“S22    7”    ARAKKONAM    38
“S22    7”    SHOLINGUR    39
“S22    7”    KATPADI    40
“S22    7”    RANIPET    41
“S22    7”    ARCOT    42
TN    VELLORE    “S22    8”    VELLORE    43
“S22    8”    ANAIKATTU    44
“S22    8”    KILVAITHINANKUPPAM    45
“S22    8”    GUDIYATTAM    46
“S22    8”    VANIYAMBADI    47
“S22    8”    AMBUR    48
TN    KRISHNAGIRI    “S22    9”    UTHANGARAI    51
“S22    9”    BARGUR    52
“S22    9”    KRISHNAGIRI    53
“S22    9”    VEPPANAHALLI    54
“S22    9”    HOSUR    55
“S22    9”    THALLI    56
TN    DHARMAPURI    “S22    10”    PALACODU    57
“S22    10”    PENNAGARAM    58
“S22    10”    DHARMAPURI    59
“S22    10”    PAPPIREDDIPPATTI    60
“S22    10”    HARUR    61
“S22    10”    METTUR    85
TN    TIRUVANNAMALAI    “S22    11”    JOLARPET    49
“S22    11”    TIRUPPATTUR    50
“S22    11”    CHENGAM    62
“S22    11”    TIRUVANNAMALAI    63
“S22    11”    KILPENNATHUR    64
“S22    11”    KALASAPAKKAM    65
TN    ARANI    “S22    12”    POLUR    66
“S22    12”    ARANI    67
“S22    12”    CHEYYAR    68
“S22    12”    VANDAVASI    69
“S22    12”    GINGEE    70
“S22    12”    MAILAM    71
TN    VILUPPURAM    “S22    13”    TINDIVANAM    72
“S22    13”    VANUR    73
“S22    13”    VILUPPURAM    74
“S22    13”    VIKRAVANDI    75
“S22    13”    THIRUKOILUR    76
“S22    13”    ULUNDURPETTAI    77
TN    KALLAKURICHI    “S22    14”    RISHIVANDIYAM    78
“S22    14”    SANKARAPURAM    79
“S22    14”    KALLAKURICHI    80
“S22    14”    GANGAVALLI    81
“S22    14”    ATTUR    82
“S22    14”    YERCAUD    83
TN    SALEM    “S22    15”    OMALUR    84
“S22    15”    EDAPPADI    86
“S22    15”    SALEM (WEST)    88
“S22    15”    SALEM (NORTH)    89
“S22    15”    SALEM (SOUTH)    90
“S22    15”    VEERAPANDI    91
TN    NAMAKKAL    “S22    16”    SANKARI    87
“S22    16”    RASIPURAM    92
“S22    16”    SENTHAMANGALAM    93
“S22    16”    NAMAKKAL    94
“S22    16”    PARAMATHI-VELUR    95
“S22    16”    TIRUCHENGODU    96
TN    ERODE    “S22    17”    KUMARAPALAYAM    97
“S22    17”    ERODE (EAST)    98
“S22    17”    ERODE (WEST)    99
“S22    17”    MODAKURICHI    100
“S22    17”    DHARAPURAM    101
“S22    17”    KANGAYAM    102
TN    TIRUPPUR    “S22    18”    PERUNDURAI    103
“S22    18”    BHAVANI    104
“S22    18”    ANTHIYUR    105
“S22    18”    GOBICHETTIPALAYAM    106
“S22    18”    TIRUPPUR (NORTH)    113
“S22    18”    TIRUPPUR (SOUTH)    114
TN    NILGIRIS    “S22    19”    BHAVANISAGAR    107
“S22    19”    UDHAGAMANDALAM    108
“S22    19”    GUDALUR    109
“S22    19”    COONOOR    110
“S22    19”    METTUPPALAYAM    111
“S22    19”    AVANASHI    112
TN    COIMBATORE    “S22    20”    PALLADAM    115
“S22    20”    SULUR    116
“S22    20”    KAVUNDAMPALAYAM    117
“S22    20”    COIMBATORE (NORTH)    118
“S22    20”    COIMBATORE (SOUTH)    120
“S22    20”    SINGANALLUR    121
TN    POLLACHI    “S22    21”    THONDAMUTHUR    119
“S22    21”    KINATHUKADAVU    122
“S22    21”    POLLACHI    123
“S22    21”    VALPARAI    124
“S22    21”    UDUMALAIPETTAI    125
“S22    21”    MADATHUKULAM    126
TN    DINDIGUL    “S22    22”    PALANI    127
“S22    22”    ODDANCHATRAM    128
“S22    22”    ATHOOR    129
“S22    22”    NILAKKOTTAI    130
“S22    22”    NATHAM    131
“S22    22”    DINDIGUL    132
TN    KARUR    “S22    23”    VEDASANDUR    133
“S22    23”    ARAVAKURICHI    134
“S22    23”    KARUR    135
“S22    23”    KRISHNARAYAPURAM    136
“S22    23”    MANAPPARAI    138
“S22    23”    VIRALIMALAI    179
TN    TIRUCHIRAPPALLI    “S22    24”    SRIRANGAM    139
“S22    24”    TIRUCHIRAPPALLI (WEST)    140
“S22    24”    TIRUCHIRAPPALLI (EAST)    141
“S22    24”    THIRUVERUMBUR    142
“S22    24”    GANDARVAKOTTAI    178
“S22    24”    PUDUKKOTTAI    180
TN    PERAMBALUR    “S22    25”    KULITHALAI    137
“S22    25”    LALGUDI    143
“S22    25”    MANACHANALLUR    144
“S22    25”    MUSIRI    145
“S22    25”    THURAIYUR    146
“S22    25”    PERAMBALUR    147
TN    CUDDALORE    “S22    26”    TITTAKUDI    151
“S22    26”    VRIDDHACHALAM    152
“S22    26”    NEYVELI    153
“S22    26”    PANRUTI    154
“S22    26”    CUDDALORE    155
“S22    26”    KURINJIPADI    156
TN    CHIDAMBARAM    “S22    27”    KUNNAM    148
“S22    27”    ARIYALUR    149
“S22    27”    JAYANKONDAM    150
“S22    27”    BHUVANAGIRI    157
“S22    27”    CHIDAMBARAM    158
“S22    27”    KATTUMANNARKOIL    159
TN    MAYILADUTHURAI    “S22    28”    SIRKAZHI    160
“S22    28”    MAYILADUTHURAI    161
“S22    28”    POOMPUHAR    162
“S22    28”    THIRUVIDAIMARUDUR    170
“S22    28”    KUMBAKONAM    171
“S22    28”    PAPANASAM    172
TN    NAGAPATTINAM    “S22    29”    NAGAPATTINAM    163
“S22    29”    KILVELUR    164
“S22    29”    VEDARANYAM    165
“S22    29”    THIRUTHURAIPOONDI    166
“S22    29”    THIRUVARUR    168
“S22    29”    NANNILAM    169
TN    THANJAVUR    “S22    30”    MANNARGUDI    167
“S22    30”    THIRUVAIYARU    173
“S22    30”    THANJAVUR    174
“S22    30”    ORATTANADU    175
“S22    30”    PATTUKKOTTAI    176
“S22    30”    PERAVURANI    177
TN    SIVAGANGA    “S22    31”    THIRUMAYAM    181
“S22    31”    ALANGUDI    182
“S22    31”    KARAIKUDI    184
“S22    31”    TIRUPPATTUR    185
“S22    31”    SIVAGANGA    186
“S22    31”    MANAMADURAI    187
TN    MADURAI    “S22    32”    MELUR    188
“S22    32”    MADURAI EAST    189
“S22    32”    MADURAI NORTH    191
“S22    32”    MADURAI SOUTH    192
“S22    32”    MADURAI CENTRAL    193
“S22    32”    MADURAI WEST    194
TN    THENI    “S22    33”    SHOLAVANDAN    190
“S22    33”    USILAMPATTI    197
“S22    33”    ANDIPATTI    198
“S22    33”    PERIYAKULAM    199
“S22    33”    BODINAYACKANUR    200
“S22    33”    CUMBUM    201
TN    VIRUDHUNAGAR    “S22    34”    THIRUPARANKUNDRAM    195
“S22    34”    THIRUMANGALAM    196
“S22    34”    SATTUR    204
“S22    34”    SIVAKASI    205
“S22    34”    VIRUDHUNAGAR    206
“S22    34”    ARUPPUKKOTTAI    207
TN    RAMANATHAPURAM    “S22    35”    ARANTHANGI    183
“S22    35”    TIRUCHULI    208
“S22    35”    PARAMAKUDI    209
“S22    35”    TIRUVADANAI    210
“S22    35”    RAMANATHAPURAM    211
“S22    35”    MUDHUKULATHUR    212
TN    THOOTHUKKUDI    “S22    36”    VILATHIKULAM    213
“S22    36”    THOOTHUKKUDI    214
“S22    36”    TIRUCHENDUR    215
“S22    36”    SRIVAIKUNTAM    216
“S22    36”    OTTAPIDARAM    217
“S22    36”    KOVILPATTI    218
TN    TENKASI    “S22    37”    RAJAPALAYAM    202
“S22    37”    SRIVILLIPUTHUR    203
“S22    37”    SANKARANKOVIL    219
“S22    37”    VASUDEVANALLUR    220
“S22    37”    KADAYANALLUR    221
“S22    37”    TENKASI    222
TN    TIRUNELVELI    “S22    38”    ALANGULAM    223
“S22    38”    TIRUNELVELI    224
“S22    38”    AMBASAMUDRAM    225
“S22    38”    PALAYAMKOTTAI    226
“S22    38”    NANGUNERI    227
“S22    38”    RADHAPURAM    228
TN    KANNIYAKUMARI    “S22    39”    KANNIYAKUMARI    229
“S22    39”    NAGERCOIL    230
“S22    39”    COLACHEL    231
“S22    39”    PADMANABHAPURAM    232
“S22    39”    VILAVANCODE    233
“S22    39”    KILLIYOOR    234
TR    TRIPURA WEST    “S23    1”    SIMNA    1
“S23    1”    MOHANPUR    2
“S23    1”    BAMUTIA    3
“S23    1”    BARJALA    4
“S23    1”    KHAYERPUR    5
“S23    1”    AGARTALA    6
“S23    1”    RAMNAGAR    7
“S23    1”    TOWN BORDOWALI    8
“S23    1”    BANAMALIPUR    9
“S23    1”    MAJLISHPUR    10
“S23    1”    MANDAIBAZAR    11
“S23    1”    TAKARJALA    12
“S23    1”    PRATAPGARH    13
“S23    1”    BADHARGHAT    14
“S23    1”    KAMALASAGAR    15
“S23    1”    BISHALGARH    16
“S23    1”    GOLAGHATI    17
“S23    1”    SURYAMANINAGAR    18
“S23    1”    CHARILAM    19
“S23    1”    BOXANAGAR    20
“S23    1”    NALCHAR    21
“S23    1”    SONAMURA    22
“S23    1”    DHANPUR    23
“S23    1”    BAGMA    30
“S23    1”    RADHAKISHOREPUR    31
“S23    1”    MATARBARI    32
“S23    1”    KAKRABAN-SALGARH    33
“S23    1”    RAJNAGAR    34
“S23    1”    BELONIA    35
“S23    1”    SANTIRBAZAR    36
TR    TRIPURA EAST    “S23    2”    RAMCHANDRAGHAT    24
“S23    2”    KHOWAI    25
“S23    2”    ASHARAMBARI    26
“S23    2”    KALYANPUR-PRAMODENAGAR    27
“S23    2”    TELIAMURA    28
“S23    2”    KRISHNAPUR    29
“S23    2”    HRISHYAMUKH    37
“S23    2”    JOLAIBARI    38
“S23    2”    MANU    39
“S23    2”    SABROOM    40
“S23    2”    AMPINAGAR    41
“S23    2”    AMARPUR    42
“S23    2”    KARBOOK    43
“S23    2”    RAIMA VALLEY    44
“S23    2”    KAMALPUR    45
“S23    2”    SURMA    46
“S23    2”    AMBASSA    47
“S23    2”    KARMACHHARA    48
“S23    2”    CHAWAMANU    49
“S23    2”    PABIACHHARA    50
“S23    2”    FATIKROY    51
“S23    2”    CHANDIPUR    52
“S23    2”    KAILASHAHAR    53
“S23    2”    KADAMTALA-KURTI    54
“S23    2”    BAGBASSA    55
“S23    2”    DHARMANAGAR    56
“S23    2”    JUBARAJNAGAR    57
“S23    2”    PANISAGAR    58
“S23    2”    PENCHARTHAL    59
“S23    2”    KANCHANPUR    60
UP    SAHARANPUR    “S24    1”    BEHAT    1
“S24    1”    SAHARANPUR NAGAR    3
“S24    1”    SAHARANPUR    4
“S24    1”    DEOBAND    5
“S24    1”    RAMPUR MANIHARAN    6
UP    KAIRANA    “S24    2”    NAKUR    2
“S24    2”    GANGOH    7
“S24    2”    KAIRANA    8
“S24    2”    THANA BHAWAN    9
“S24    2”    SHAMLI    10
UP    MUZAFFARNAGAR    “S24    3”    BUDHANA    11
“S24    3”    CHARTHAWAL    12
“S24    3”    MUZAFFAR NAGAR    14
“S24    3”    KHATAULI    15
“S24    3”    SARDHANA    44
UP    BIJNOR    “S24    4”    PURQAZI    13
“S24    4”    MEERAPUR    16
“S24    4”    BIJNOR    22
“S24    4”    CHANDPUR    23
“S24    4”    HASTINAPUR    45
UP    NAGINA    “S24    5”    NAJIBABAD    17
“S24    5”    NAGINA    18
“S24    5”    DHAMPUR    20
“S24    5”    NEHTAUR    21
“S24    5”    NOORPUR    24
UP    MORADABAD    “S24    6”    BARHAPUR    19
“S24    6”    KANTH    25
“S24    6”    THKURDWARA    26
“S24    6”    MORADABAD RURAL    27
“S24    6”    MORADABAD NAGAR    28
UP    RAMPUR    “S24    7”    SUAR    34
“S24    7”    CHAMRAUA    35
“S24    7”    BILASPUR    36
“S24    7”    RAMPUR    37
“S24    7”    MILAK    38
UP    SAMBHAL    “S24    8”    KUNDARKI    29
“S24    8”    BILARI    30
“S24    8”    CHANDAUSI    31
“S24    8”    ASMOLI    32
“S24    8”    SAMBHAL    33
UP    AMROHA    “S24    9”    DHANAURA    39
“S24    9”    NAUGAWAN SADAT    40
“S24    9”    AMROHA    41
“S24    9”    HASANPUR    42
“S24    9”    GARHMUKTESHWAR    60
UP    MEERUT    “S24    10”    KITHORE    46
“S24    10”    MEERUT CANTT.    47
“S24    10”    MEERUT    48
“S24    10”    MEERUT SOUTH    49
“S24    10”    HAPUR    59
UP    BAGHPAT    “S24    11”    SIWAL KHAS    43
“S24    11”    CHHAPRAULI    50
“S24    11”    BARAUT    51
“S24    11”    BAGHPAT    52
“S24    11”    MONI NAGAR    57
UP    GHAZIABAD    “S24    12”    LONI    53
“S24    12”    MURADNAGAR    54
“S24    12”    SAHIBABAD    55
“S24    12”    GAZIABAD    56
“S24    12”    DHOLANA    58
UP    GAUTAM BUDDH NAGAR    “S24    13”    NOIDA    61
“S24    13”    DADRI    62
“S24    13”    JEWAR    63
“S24    13”    SIKANDRABAD    64
“S24    13”    KHURJA    70
UP    BULANDSHAHR    “S24    14”    BULANDSHAHR    65
“S24    14”    SYANA    66
“S24    14”    ANUPSHAHR    67
“S24    14”    DEBAI    68
“S24    14”    SHIKARPUR    69
UP    ALIGARH    “S24    15”    KHAIR    71
“S24    15”    BARAULI    72
“S24    15”    ATRAULI    73
“S24    15”    KOIL    75
“S24    15”    ALIGARH    76
UP    HATHRAS    “S24    16”    CHHARRA    74
“S24    16”    IGLAS    77
“S24    16”    HATHRAS    78
“S24    16”    SADABAD    79
“S24    16”    SIKANDRA RAO    80
UP    MATHURA    “S24    17”    CHHATA    81
“S24    17”    MANT    82
“S24    17”    GOVERDHAN    83
“S24    17”    MATHURA    84
“S24    17”    BALDEV    85
UP    AGRA    “S24    18”    ETMADPUR    86
“S24    18”    AGRA CANTT.    87
“S24    18”    AGRA SOUTH    88
“S24    18”    AGRA NORTH    89
“S24    18”    JALESAR    106
UP    FATEHPUR SIKRI    “S24    19”    AGRA RURAL    90
“S24    19”    FATEHPUR SIKARI    91
“S24    19”    KHERAGARH    92
“S24    19”    FATEHABAD    93
“S24    19”    BAH    94
UP    FIROZABAD    “S24    20”    TUNDLA    95
“S24    20”    JASRANA    96
“S24    20”    FIROZABAD    97
“S24    20”    SHIKOHABAD    98
“S24    20”    SIRSAGANJ    99
UP    MAINPURI    “S24    21”    MAINPURI    107
“S24    21”    BHONGAON    108
“S24    21”    KISHANI    109
“S24    21”    KARHAL    110
“S24    21”    JASWANTNAGAR    199
UP    ETAH    “S24    22”    KASGANJ    100
“S24    22”    AMANPUR    101
“S24    22”    PATIYALI    102
“S24    22”    ETAH    104
“S24    22”    MARHARA    105
UP    BADAUN    “S24    23”    GUNNAUR    111
“S24    23”    BISAULI    112
“S24    23”    SAHASWAN    113
“S24    23”    BILSI    114
“S24    23”    BUDAUN    115
UP    AONLA    “S24    24”    SHEKHUPUR    116
“S24    24”    DATAGANJ    117
“S24    24”    FARIDPUR    122
“S24    24”    BITHARI CHAINPUR    123
“S24    24”    AONLA    126
UP    BAREILLY    “S24    25”    MEERGANJ    119
“S24    25”    GHOJIPURA    120
“S24    25”    NAWABGANJ    121
“S24    25”    BAREILLY    124
“S24    25”    BARELLY CANTT.    125
UP    PILIBHIT    “S24    26”    BAHERI    118
“S24    26”    PILIBHIT    127
“S24    26”    BARKHERA    128
“S24    26”    PURANPUR    129
“S24    26”    BISALPUR    130
UP    SHAHJAHANPUR    “S24    27”    KATRA    131
“S24    27”    JALALABAD    132
“S24    27”    TILHAR    133
“S24    27”    POWAYAN    134
“S24    27”    SHAHJAHANPUR    135
“S24    27”    DADRAUL    136
UP    KHERI    “S24    28”    PALIA    137
“S24    28”    NIGHASAN    138
“S24    28”    GOLA GOKRANNATH    139
“S24    28”    SRI NAGAR    140
“S24    28”    LAKHIMPUR    142
UP    DHAURAHRA    “S24    29”    DHAURAHRA    141
“S24    29”    KASTA    143
“S24    29”    MOHAMMDI    144
“S24    29”    MAHOLI    145
“S24    29”    HARGAON    147
UP    SITAPUR    “S24    30”    SITAPUR    146
“S24    30”    LAHARPUR    148
“S24    30”    BISWAN    149
“S24    30”    SEVATA    150
“S24    30”    MAHMOODABAD    151
UP    HARDOI    “S24    31”    SAWAIJPUR    154
“S24    31”    SHAHABAD    155
“S24    31”    HARDOI    156
“S24    31”    GOPAMAU    157
“S24    31”    SANDI    158
UP    MISRIKH    “S24    32”    MISRIKH    153
“S24    32”    BILGRAM-MALLANWAN    159
“S24    32”    BALAMAU    160
“S24    32”    SANDILA    161
“S24    32”    BILHAUR    209
UP    UNNAO    “S24    33”    BANGARMAU    162
“S24    33”    SAFIPUR    163
“S24    33”    MOHAN    164
“S24    33”    UNNAO    165
“S24    33”    BHAGWANTNAGAR    166
“S24    33”    PURWA    167
UP    MOHANLALGANJ    “S24    34”    SIDHAULI    152
“S24    34”    MALIHABAD    168
“S24    34”    BAKSHI KAA TALAB    169
“S24    34”    SAROJINI NAGAR    170
“S24    34”    MOHANLALGANJ    176
UP    LUCKNOW    “S24    35”    LUCKNOW WEST    171
“S24    35”    LUCKNOW NORTH    172
“S24    35”    LUCKNOW EAST    173
“S24    35”    LUCKNOW CENTRAL    174
“S24    35”    LUCKNOW CANTT.    175
UP    RAE BARELI    “S24    36”    BACHHRAWAN    177
“S24    36”    HARCHANDPUR    179
“S24    36”    RAE BARELI    180
“S24    36”    SARENI    182
“S24    36”    UNCHAHAR    183
UP    AMETHI    “S24    37”    TILOI    178
“S24    37”    SALON    181
“S24    37”    JAGDISHPUR    184
“S24    37”    GAURIGANJ    185
“S24    37”    AMETHI    186
UP    SULTANPUR    “S24    38”    ISAULI    187
“S24    38”    SULTANPUR    188
“S24    38”    SADAR    189
“S24    38”    LAMBHUA    190
“S24    38”    KADIPUR    191
UP    PRATAPGARH    “S24    39”    RAMPUR KHAS    244
“S24    39”    BISHWAVNATHGANJ    247
“S24    39”    PRATAPGARH    248
“S24    39”    PATTI    249
“S24    39”    RANIGANJ    250
UP    FARRUKHABAD    “S24    40”    ALIGANJ    103
“S24    40”    KAIMGANJ    192
“S24    40”    AMRITPUR    193
“S24    40”    FARRUKHABAD    194
“S24    40”    BHOJPUR    195
UP    ETAWAH    “S24    41”    ETAWAH    200
“S24    41”    BHARTHANA    201
“S24    41”    DIBIYAPUR    203
“S24    41”    AURAIYA    204
“S24    41”    SIKANDRA    207
UP    KANNAUJ    “S24    42”    CHHIBRAMAU    196
“S24    42”    TIRWA    197
“S24    42”    KANNAUJ    198
“S24    42”    BIDHUNA    202
“S24    42”    RASULABAD    205
UP    KANPUR    “S24    43”    GOVINDNAGAR    212
“S24    43”    SISHAMAU    213
“S24    43”    ARYA NAGAR    214
“S24    43”    DIDWAI NAGAR    215
“S24    43”    KANPUR CANTT.    216
UP    AKBARPUR    “S24    44”    AKBARPUR – RANIYA    206
“S24    44”    BITHOOR    210
“S24    44”    KALYANPUR    211
“S24    44”    MAHARAJPUR    217
“S24    44”    GHATAMPUR    218
UP    JALAUN    “S24    45”    BHOGNIPUR    208
“S24    45”    MADHAUGARH    219
“S24    45”    KALPI    220
“S24    45”    ORAI    221
“S24    45”    GARAUTHA    225
UP    JHANSI    “S24    46”    BABINA    222
“S24    46”    JHANSI NAGAR    223
“S24    46”