Economics as a Beautiful Subject: Its Concepts & Principles Explained for Everyone….
by Subroto Roy Draft 12 July 2019, 11 October 2019, 2 February 2020, 26 April 2020, 18 March 2021, 19 March 2021, 20 March 2021, 28 March 2021, 5 April 2021, 17 September 2021, 19 September 2021
0. Economics is a beautiful science that is important to mankind’s well-being and progress. The purpose of this work is to describe and explain its main concepts and principles to any person who is literate and numerate, that is, to just about everyone or anyone who wants to know…
0.1. Economics is about… people… homo sapiens (tho yes there’s a general theory from biology yet to be written)…
and those people’s
0.2. It’s also about
the organization of agriculture & industry
government finance & decision-making
domestic commerce & its regulation
labour & its employment
capital, and land, & their utilization
money, banking, & finance
world trade, factor flows, & international payments
0.3. Time does not stand still,
so prices have to include
interest-rates and cross interest-rates
and quantity decisions have to include
decisions about needs over time, ie Savings
decisions about productive capacity over time, ie Investment.
0.4. There are
for the present…
taking us & being taken by us into the future…
0.5. Traditionally, Economics has had its
Three Great Categories:
and a Fourth too…
0.6. Then there is
Theory of Value (Price Theory) or “Microeconomics”
— theory of the “Real Economy“, where measurements are of quantities of goods and services, and of Relative Prices, ie ratios of these
those measured quantities (eg 3 apples for 4 oranges)…
Theory of Money or “Macroeconomics”
— theory of the “Nominal Economy“, where prices are measured in monetary units as Money Prices ie in units of fiat or other money (eg 3 apples for 1 monetary unit, 4 oranges for 1 monetary unit…).
0.7. Suppose, for example, there are only three real goods and services in an economy, whose prices per unit expressed in terms of a Monetary Unit (MU) are 3 MU, 2 MU, 6 MU respectively. If those Money Prices per unit happened to double to 6 MU, 4 MU, 12 MU respectively, we might say Inflation of 100% occurred in money prices during that time, or that the real value of the Monetary Unit fell by that amount. If the money prices had gone instead to 4.50 MU, 3MU, 9MU, we would say inflation was 50%.
Ratios between the three prices have remained the same in these cases; i.e., while Money Prices of the three items changed, the (two) Relative Prices between them stayed the same. In reality there are many hundreds of millions of differentiated real goods and services in any economy though the same logic would continue. And the number of Relative Prices always will be one less than the number of Money Prices.
0.8. The attempt to write “microeconomic foundations of macroeconomics” has been the attempt to comprehend “aggregate” or “macro” sized variables like
Demand for & Supply of Money
in conceptual terms rooted in terms of the “micro” decisions (or “constrained optimizations”) of masses of individual people…. as these individuals may happen to be arranged in