Shri G Madhavan Nair, Padma Bhushan, Chairman, ISRO
Warm congratulations on the successful launch of the PSLV rocket this morning carrying the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft atop it. As an Indian citizen, I trust all the plans announced by yourself and your colleagues over the last few years shall succeed in this complex endeavour.
In an article “India’s Moon Mission” published in the Editorial Page of The Statesman on August 13 2006, I had expressed the hope of seeing from ISRO a thorough technical survey of all of mankind’s attempts at the Moon from which our Mission could have learnt appropriate lessons. No such survey was apparently done, and hence I am enclosing below a brief survey from open sources, compiled by a lay citizen such as myself. This may be found helpful by your teams in placing our Mission in appropriate historical, scientific and technological context.
With best regards
Kolkata, October 22 2008.
A COMPLETE HISTORY OF MANKIND’S MISSIONS TO THE MOON
Compiled from open sources by Subroto Roy
(NOTE: These were from notes made by me prior to my August 13 2006 article in The Statesman titled “India’s Moon Mission”. I make no claim to any originality whatsoever to any of the text. As I recall, the notes were from open sources including NASA. Please email me if there are any questions about the text. They are being published today in a bit of a rush in view of Chandrayaan’s launch this morning.)
1. Pioneer 0, Aug 17 1958 Failed lunar orbiter. 1st stage rocket exploded 77 seconds after liftoff.
2. Luna 1958A Sep 23 1958 Failed lunarimpactor. Rocket exploded after liftoff.
3. Pioneer 1, Oct 11 1958 Failed orbiter. 2nd and 3rd stages failed to separate evenly; failed to achieve trajectory, but sent data on Van Allen Belt and micrometeorites.
4. Luna 1958B , Oct 12 1958 Failed impactor. Rocket exploded after liftoff.
5. Pioneer 2, Nov 8 1958 Failed orbiter. 2nd stage failed to ignite; fell back to Earth
6. Luna1958C Dec 4 1958 Failed impactor. 1st stage rocket failed
7. Pioneer 3/4, Dec 6 1958 Failed lunar flyby. 1st stage rocket shut off early; causing crash.
8. Luna 1 Jan 2 1959 Failed impactor. Missed Moon, went into solar orbit, but sent data by releasing sodium vapour cloud 110,000 kms from Earth, allowing study of interplanetary gases.
9. Luna 1959A Jun 18 1959? Failed impactor. Guidance system failed, unable to reach Earth orbit
10. Pioneer 4 , Mar 3 1959 Successful lunar flyby. Passed within 60,000 km of Moon, returned data on lunar radiation levels, then entered solar orbit.
11. Luna 2 , Sep 12 1959 Successful lunar impactor. First craft to land on another celestial body. Impacted Moon’s surface Sep 14 1959, east of Sea of Serenity near raters Aristides, Archimedes, Autolycus at 29.10 N, 0.00 E. Did not detect magnetic field around Moon.
12. Luna 3 Oct 4 1959 Successful flyby. First craft to take photos of far side of Moon. Trajectory took craft around the Moon and back, re-entered Earth’s atmosphere on Apr 20 1960.
13. Pioneer P-3 Nov 26 1959? Failed flyby. Protective cover broke away after 45 seconds in flight, failed to reach orbit, crashed to Earth.
14. Ranger 1 August 23, 1961 Failed Earth-orbit test vehicle. To test “parking orbit” around Earth to give engineers time to calculate accurate trajectory to follow to Moon. Made it to low Earth orbit, then engines, which were supposed to re-ignite after 13 minutes and burn for 90 seconds, burned for a few seconds only and shut off. Re-entered Earth’s atmosphere after 111 orbits.
15. Ranger 2 Nov 18 1961 Failed Earth-orbit test vehicle. Engines failed to re-ignite after spacecraft entered low Earth orbit, and burned up in atmosphere
16. Ranger 3 January. 26, 1962 Failed lunar lander. To take close-up images before impacting, missed the Moon and ended in solar orbit.
17. Ranger 4 April 23, 1962Failed lunar lander. Lunar impact: April 26, 1962 On board communication failure; ground control could track it until it crashed on far side of the Moon but unable to collect any data.
18. Ranger 5 Failed lunar lander. October 18, 1962 Solar cell failed shortly after launch. Without power, engineers unable to control the spacecraft and it missed the Moon by 720 kilometers.
19. Sputnik 25 Failed lunar lander. Launch: January 4, 1963 Failed to transfer to lunar trajectory and burned up as it re-entered Earth’s atmosphere.
20. Luna 4 Failed lunar orbiter. April 2, 1963 Contact lost after it passed within 9,300 kilometers of the Moon.
21. Ranger 6 Failed lunar impactor. January 30, 1964 Lunar impact: Feb 2, 1964 cameras failed and no pictures were returned, crashed in Sea of Tranquillity.
22. Ranger 7 Successful lunar impactor . July 28, 1964 Lunar impact: July 31, 1964 Sent back first high-quality images of lunar surface, more than 4,300 images, before crash-landing in Sea of Clouds.
23. Ranger 8 Successful lunar impactor. Launch: February 17, 1965 Lunar impact: February 20, 1965 Took more than 7,100 high-quality images of the lunar surface before crash-landing in Sea of Tranquility
24. Ranger 9 Successful lunar impactor. Launch: March 21, 1965 Ranger 9 took more than 5,800 images of the lunar surface before it crash-landed in the crater Alphonsus. Network television broadcast images from the spacecraft as they were received — live from the Moon!
25. Luna 5 Failed lunar lander. Launch: May 9, 1965 Lunar Impact: May 12, 1965 First-ever attempt to soft-land a spacecraft on Moon. Luna 5′s retro-rockets failed to fire and the spacecraft crash-landed near Sea of Clouds.
26. Luna 6 – Failed lunar lander. Launch: June 8, 1965 On its way to the Moon, a rocket failed to turn off after a trajectory correction, so missed Moon and went into solar orbit.
27. Zond 3 Successful lunar flyby. Launch: July 18, 1965 Took 25 images as it flew by the far side of the Moon and transmitted them back to Earth nine days later. After passing the Moon, the spacecraft went into a solar orbit.
28. Luna 7 Failed lunar lander. Launch: October 4, 1965 Lunar impact: October 7, 1965 Luna 7 made it to the Moon, but its retrorockets switched on too soon. The spacecraft crash-landed in the Ocean of Storms, west of the crater Kepler.
29. Luna 8 Failed lunar lander. Launch: December 3, 1965 Lunar impact: December 6, 1965 Luna 8 made it to the Moon, but its retrorockets fired too late and the spacecraft crash-landed in the Ocean of Storms, east of the crater Galilei.
30. Luna 9 Successful lunar lander. Launch: Jan. 31, 1966 Lunar landing: February 3, 1966 First to make controlled landing onto surface of another celestial body. Landed on sloping floor of shallow crater at 7.08 N, Longitude 295.63 E, within Oceanus Procellarum. Over the next two days, the spacecraft sent three panoramas of lunar landscape. During the second and third transmission, it shifted a few centimeters, and third set of images taken from a slightly different angle, allowing scientists to construct a stereoscopic view of the landing site and determine the distances to various rocks and depressions. Last communication with the spacecraft was on February 5, 1966.
31. Cosmos 111 Failed lunar flyby. March 1, 1966 The spacecraft was unable to achieve a lunar trajectory. It re-entered Earth’s atmosphere on March 3, 1966.
32. Luna 10 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: March 31, 1966 Lunar orbit insertion: April 2, 1966. First spacecraft to orbit around another celestial body. Studied radiation levels and cosmic ray intensities and took readings of the Moon’s weak magnetic field. Transmitted data for two months, circling the Moon 460 times before mission ended May 30, 1966.
33. Surveyor 1 – Successful lunar lander. Launch: May 30, 1966 controlled landing on the surface of the Moon, at 2.45 S, 316.79 E. Surveyor 1 took more than 11,100 images of the lunar landscape during its 6-week mission.
34. Lunar Orbiter 1 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: August 10, 1966 Sent back high-quality TV images of a vast area of lunar surface, including first detailed images of potential Apollo landing sites. After circling Moon 527 times in 77 days, ground control deliberately crashed the craft onto the Moon’s surface, so it would not represent a hazard to upcoming manned missions.
35. Luna 11 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: August 24, 1966 Lunar orbit insertion: August 27, 1966 Designed to test new technology, completed 277 orbits before its mission was terminated on October 1, 1966.
36. Surveyor 2 Failed lunar lander. Launch: September 20, 1966 Lunar impact: September 22, 1966 Just before touchdown, one of Surveyor 2’s thrusters malfunctioned, and spacecraft tumbled out of control. Crashed into the Moon southeast of the crater Copernicus.
37. Luna 12 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: October 22, 1966 Lunar orbit insertion: October 25, 1966 took 1,100 pictures of the Moon, including images of the Sea of Rains and area surrounding the crater Aristarchus. The mission was terminated on January 19 1967 after 602 orbits.
38. Lunar Orbiter 2 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: November 6, 1966 Lunar orbit insertion: November 6, 1966 Lunar impact: October 11, 1967 Took more than 800 pictures including an oblique view of the crater Copernicus. Was deliberately sent crashing into the lunar surface on October 11, 1967,
39. Luna 13 Successful lunar lander. Launch: December 21, 1966 Lunar landing: December 24, 1966 bounced to a landing on the lunar surface, coming to a rest in the Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum) at 18.87 N, 297.95 E, between the craters Selencus and Craft. The lander collected soil samples and conducted experiments to determine the soil density and radioactivity. The mission ended on December 30, 1966, when the spacecraft’s supplies were depleted.
40. Lunar Orbiter 3 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: February 4, 1967 Lunar orbit insertion: February 8, 1967. The orbit was altered several times to give controllers on Earth more experience with communications; was able to photograph Surveyor 2 on the surface. Mission ended on October 9, 1967, when controllers deliberately crashed the spacecraft into the Moon.
41. Surveyor 3 Successful lunar lander. Launch: April 17, 1967 Lunar landing: April 20, 1967 As it came in for a soft landing, one thruster did not turn off properly, as a result spacecraft bounced before coming to rest in Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum), at 3.01 S, 336.66 E. A scoop was used to collect soil samples, and a camera took more than 6,300 images.
42. Lunar Orbiter 4 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: May 4, 1967 Lunar orbit insertion: May 8, 1967 Lunar Orbiter 4 was the first to take pictures of the Moon’s south pole. It took images from orbit for 8 months before controllers deliberately crashed the spacecraft into the Moon.
43. Surveyor 4 Failed lunar lander. Launch: July 14, 1967 Controllers lost contact with Surveyor 4 just two and a half minutes before it was to touch down in Sinus Medii.
44. Lunar Orbiter 5 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: August 1, 1967 Lunar orbit insertion: August 5, 1967. With this, more than 99% of the Moon’s surface had been mapped by the Lunar Orbiter spacecraft. Ended when controllers sent spacecraft crashing into the lunar surface on January 31, 1968.
45. Surveyor 5 Successful lunar lander. Launch: September 8, 1967 Lunar landing: September 10, 1967 Despite a helium leak that occurred during its trip to the Moon, controllers were able to bring Surveyor 5 to a successful landing in the Sea of Tranquillity (Mare Tranquillitatis), at 1.41 N, 23.18 E. Controllers ordered the spacecraft to fire its engine to test composition of the soil beneath the lander. The test firing blew away a few clumps of soil but did not create a crater. Final transmission received on December 17, 1967.
46. Surveyor 6 Successful lunar lander. Launch: November 7, 1967 Lunar landing: November 9, 1967 Touched down in Sinus Medii, at 0.49 N, 358.60 E. Once on surface, took a series of pictures and soil samples. On November 17, controllers ordered the spacecraft’s engines to fire, lifting Surveyor 6 off the lunar surface 3 meters (10 feet) and setting it down again a few feet from the original landing site. The spacecraft then took pictures of the former landing site, checking for evidence of a crater created by the rocket’s exhaust. No crater was found, indicating the Moon’s surface was solid enough to support a manned landing. Last contact on Dec 14, 1967.
47. Surveyor 7 Successful lunar lander. Launch: January 7, 1968 Lunar landing: January 9, 1968 Landed in the lunar highlands, near the north rim of the crater Tycho, at 40.86 S, Longitude 348.53 E. Scientists used the scoop on the spacecraft to weigh lunar rocks, based on how much current was needed to lift each rock. Images sent back indicated, for the first time, that some lunar rocks had been molten at some time in their history. Mission successfully completed on February 21, 1968.
48. Luna 14 Successful lunar orbiter. Launch: April 7, 1968 Lunar orbit insertion: April 10, 1968. Spacecraft took images of the Moon and studied the lunar gravitational field.
49. Zond 5 Successful lunar flyby and back. Launch: September 15, 1968 Zond 5 left Earth orbit, flew around the Moon and returned to our planet, splashing down in the Indian Ocean. The spacecraft was recovered and taken back to the USSR for study. Not much information was released but many believed Zond 5 was one of the last steps before the USSR was to land cosmonauts on the Moon.
50. Zond 6 Successful lunar flyby and back. Launch: November 10, 1968 Zond 6 may have been the USSR’s final test before launching cosmonauts to the Moon. Once the spacecraft left Earth orbit, it took 2 days to reach the Moon. There, it took pictures as it swung close to the surface. Zond 6 then returned to Earth, parachuting to a landing within Soviet territory.
51. Apollo 8 Successful manned lunar orbit Launch: December 21, 1968 Lunar orbit insertion: December 24, 1968 Astronauts Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders first humans to leave Earth and travel to the Moon. They arrived at the Moon, completed 10 orbits, and returned to Earth on December 27, 1968. Live TV images broadcast from the trip included an iconic image of Earth rising over the lunar horizon.
52. Zond 1969A Failed lunar flyby and return craft. Launch: January 20, 1969 The launch vehicle’s second stage shut down early and the spacecraft failed to achieve Earth orbit.
53. Luna 1969A Failed lunar rover. Launch: February 19, 1969 Launch vehicle exploded shortly after liftoff.
54. Zond L1S-1 Failed lunar orbiter. Launch: February 21, 1969 Launch vehicle exploded shortly after liftoff.
55. Luna 1969B Failed lunar sample return. Launch: April 15, 1969 Launch vehicle apparently exploded on the launch pad.
56. Apollo 10 – Successful manned lunar orbiter. Launch: May 18, 1969 Lunar orbit insertion: May 21 1969 Astronauts Thomas Stafford, John Young, and Eugene Cernan went into lunar orbit, where they tested procedures for the first moon landing. Apollo 10 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on May 26, 1969.
57. Luna 1969C Failed lunar sample return. Launch: June 14, 1969 Launch vehicle exploded shortly after liftoff.
58. Luna 15 Failed lunar sample return. Launch: July 13, 1969 Was launched in a veil of secrecy only three days before Apollo 11. The USSR did not reveal the target or mission of Luna 15 causing concern on the part of the USA. Would Luna 15′s mission interfere with Apollo 11? Where would it land? Would there be communication interference? Just two hours before the liftoff of Apollo 11, Luna 15 began its descent to the surface in the Sea of Crisis. The spacecraft crash landed on the lunar surface.
59. Apollo 11 Successful first manned lunar landing. Launch: July 16, 1969 Lunar landing: July 20, 1969 While astronaut Michael Collins orbited overhead, Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became first humans to land on the Moon, within the Sea of Tranquillity. Remained on the lunar surface for more than 21 hours and collected 20 kilograms (44 pounds) of samples. Apollo 11 returned to Earth on July 24, 1969, splashing down in the Pacific Ocean.
60. Zond 7 Successful lunar flyby and back. Launch: August 7, 1969 Lunar landing August 14, 1969 Zond 7 flew to the Moon and back, taking colour pictures of the Earth and lunar surface along the way. Soft-landed in Kazakhstan.
61. Cosmos 300 Failed lunar sample return. Launch: September 23, 1969 The spacecraft reached Earth orbit, and its rocket failed. Was unable to continue to the Moon.
62. Cosmos 305 Failed lunar sample return. Launch: October 22, 1969 Spacecraft reached Earth orbit, and its rocket failed. Was unable to continue to the Moon.
63. Apollo 12 Successful manned lunar landing. Launch: November 14, 1969 Lunar landing: November 19, 1969 While astronaut Richard Gordon orbited overhead, Charles Conrad and Alan Bean landed on the Moon. Apollo 12 touched down in the Ocean of Storms, within walking distance of Surveyor 3. The astronauts were on the lunar surface for 31.5 hours and collected 34 kilograms (75 pounds) of samples. They returned to Earth on November 24.
64. Apollo 13 Failed manned lunar landing Launch: April 11, 1970 When Apollo 13 was halfway to the Moon, an explosion in the spacecraft’s Service Module required mission control to cancel the scheduled Moon landing and focus on bringing astronauts James Lovell, Fred Haise, and John Swigert safely home which they did.
65. Luna 16 Successful lunar sample return Launch: September 12, 1970 Lunar landing: September 20, 1970 First robotic mission to land on the Moon, collect samples of dust and rock, and return those samples to Earth. Also the first spacecraft to land in lunar darkness. Landed in the Sea of Fertility (Mare Fecunditatis) at 0.68 S, 56.30 E. After collecting dust and rock samples, the spacecraft was launched back into space 26 hours later. Returned to Earth on September 24 with a soft landing, bringing back 101 grams (3.5 ounces) of Moon rocks.
66. Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 Successful lunar sample return
67. Apollo 14 Successful manned lunar landing Launch: January 31, 1971 Lunar landing: February 5, 1971 While astronaut Stuart Roosa orbited overhead, Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell landed on the Moon. Apollo 14 touched down in the Fra Mauro highlands, the landing site originally chosen for Apollo 13. The astronauts were on the lunar surface for 33 hours and collected 42 kilograms (94 pounds) of samples before returning to Earth on February 9.
68. Apollo 15 Successful manned lunar landing Launch: July 26, 1971 Lunar landing: July 30, 1971 While astronaut Alfred Worden orbited overhead, David Scott and James Irwin landed on the Moon in the Hadley Rille region. Apollo 15 was the first lander to carry a rover. Astronauts drove rover almost 28 kilometers and were on the lunar surface for almost 67 hours and collected 77 kilograms of samples before returning to Earth on August 7.
69. Luna 18 Failed lunar landing Launch: September 2, 1971 Lunar orbit insertion: September 7, 1971 After completing 54 orbits of the Moon, the spacecraft fired its braking thrusters and began its descent to the lunar surface. Communications were lost upon landing.
70. Luna 19 Successful lunar orbiter Launch: September 28, 1971 Lunar orbit insertion: October 3, 1971 Luna 19 studied the lunar space environment, including radiation, plasma, the solar wind, and the lunar gravity field
71. Luna 20 Successful lunar sample return Launch: February 14, 1972 Lunar landing: February 21, 1972 Luna 20 soft-landed in the Apollonius highlands near Sea of Fertility. Collected samples and then lifted off the next day. The sealed capsule, containing 30 grams of lunar rocks and dust, landed in the USSR on February 25 and was retrieved the following day.
72. Apollo 16 Successful manned lunar landing Launch: April 16, 1972 Lunar landing: April 21, 1972. While astronaut Thomas Mattingly orbited overhead, John Young and Charles Duke landed in the Descartes region on the Moon. Apollo 16 carried a lunar rover that astronauts drove 27 kilometers They were on the lunar surface for 71 hours and collected almost 95 kilograms of samples before returning to Earth on April 27.
73. Soyuz L3 Failure lunar orbiter and test vehicle Launch: November 23, 1972 Was designed to test a capsule that was to function as the base for a lunar lander. Just 90 seconds after launch, 6 of the 30 engines shut down, triggering a catastrophic failure of the launch vehicle.
74. Apollo 17 – Launch: December 7, 1972 Lunar landing: December 11, 1972 Successful manned lunar landing. While astronaut Ronald Evans orbited overhead, Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt landed in the Taurus-Littrow region on the Moon. Schmitt was the first geologist to land on the Moon. Cernan and Schmitt drove 30 kilometers in their lunar rover, collected 110 kilograms of samples, and spent 75 hours on the lunar surface before returning to Earth on December 19. Apollo 17 was the last human landing on the Moon — or any other place in the solar system.
75. Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 – Launch: January. 8, 1973 Lunar landing: January 15, 1973 Successful lunar rover. The rover first took a panoramic shot of the landing site, before it rolled off of its protective shell and onto the lunar surface. The rover was powered by solar panels and kept warm at night by a radioactive heat source. The mission lasted 4 months (4 lunar days), during which it took more than 80,000 television pictures and travelled 37km.
76. Luna 22 – Launched May 29, 1974 Lunar landing: June 2, 1974Successful lunar orbiter studied Moon’s magnetic field, gamma ray emissions, gravitational field. mission ended Nov 1975.
77. Luna 23 – Oct 28, 1974Failed lunar sample return :damaged during its moon landing on November 6, 1974 and was unable to collect samples. transmitted data for 3 days before falling silent.
78. Luna 24 – Aug 9, 1976 Lunar landing: Aug 18, 1976Successful lunar sample return Soft-landed in Sea of Crises. Collected 170 grams lunar dust and rocks, returned to Earth on August 22.
79. Hiten – (Muses-A)Jan 24 1990Successful lunar trajectory test launched into highly elliptical Earth orbit that took it past the Moon 10 times. It released Hagoromo, a small spacecraft that was to go into lunar orbit, but its transmitter failed before it reached the Moon. The Japanese used Hiten to test various technologies for future lunar missions. The spacecraft was intentionally crashed into the moon on April 10, 1993.
80. Clementine – April 25, 1994 Successful lunar orbiter; failed asteroid rendezvous spacecraft flew by Earth twice during the first month of its mission before going into orbit around the Moon. Once in lunar orbit, Clementine began its primary 70-day mapping mission. Then entered a circumlunar orbit and was to have flown on to an encounter with the asteroid Geographos in July 1994. But a malfunctioning thruster depleted all manoeuvering fuel and the spacecraft was stuck in Earth orbit. It lost power in June 1994, after studying the Van Allen radiation belts.
81. Lunar Prospector – Launch: January 7, 1998 Successful lunar orbiter designed to go into a low polar orbit around the Moon search for water ice and other minerals in permanently shadowed polar craters. During its 19-month mission, Lunar Prospector completed a map of the Moon’s surface composition. On July 31, 1999, mission controllers crashed the spacecraft into a crater near the south pole. Observers from Earth watched for any signs of water vapor that might have been released during the impact, but none was seen.
82. SMART-1 –Sep 27, 2003 Lunar orbit insertion: Nov 15, 2004 Successful first ESA lunar orbiter (ESA)Powered only by an ion (solar-electric) engine, to test technologies for future deep space missions.
83. SELENE 2007 ?
84. Chang’e 1 2007?
85. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 2008?
?86. Chandrayaan-1 –Lunar orbiter, Launched October 22 2008.